Bibliographic Records


Database: Volunteer Voices: The Growth of Democracy in Tennessee
Query: vvcat: "D.15"


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51    
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Title: Copy of a letter by George Washington delivered to Opio Mingo at a conference in Nashville
Author : George Washington
Date Created: 1795-01-22
Abstract: A copy of certificate written by George Washington and delivered to Opia Mingo at a conference in Nashville in 1792 in the presence of the Cherokee commissioners. The copied signatures that were on the original document were George Washington, President of the United States and Edmond Randolph, Secretary of War. The certificate states delineates the lands given to the Chickasaw Indians, and calls upon government actors to prosecute and punish Indians outside their lands.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820)
Collection: James Robertson Papers
Contributing Institution: Vanderbilt University Library
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002721
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52    
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Title: Photograph of the posthole pattern of a Cherokee segmented domestic structure ca. mid-18th century at the town of Tomotley, taken
Photographer : Gerald F. Schrodl
Date Created: 1976
Abstract: This is a photograph of posthole patterns of a Cherokee segmented domestic structure at the town of Tomotley in the Lower Little Tennessee River Valley. This structure dating back to the mid-18th century, although rectangular, appears to be more substantial than the typical summer dwelling. These sturdier structures that were often partitioned were discovered in Tomotley and Mialoquo in groups at angles to one another. It is a pattern similar to site patterning among the Creeks and Lower Cherokees and may reflect the presence of refugees settling in the Overhill country. Excavations of Tomotley were conducted by the University of Tennessee in 1976 as part of the Tellico Archaeological Project in anticipation of the flooding of the Lower Little Tennessee River by the Tellico Dam Reservoir. The excavations were conducted under contract with the National Park Service and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). Principal investigator, Alfred K. Guthe. Field Director, Gerald F. Schroedl.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002544
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53    
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Title: Drawing of the mid-18th century Cherokee village of Chota
Cartographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1974 - 1984
Abstract: This drawing depicts the layout of Chota or Echota, an 18th century Overhill Cherokee village. It shows a central village plaza with both a circular winter council house and rectangular summer council house, which were used for public, social, and political events. Shown also are domestic dwellings with the same set-up, a circular winter house alongside a rectangular summerhouse. Also drawn are areas of dense refuse-filled pits. Archeological studies by the University of Tennessee from 1969 -1974 indicate that in the mid -1700's Chota had a population of around 300-500. There were approximately 60 domestic houses surrounding the village plaza that extended along the river for about a mile. Chota was recognized by Europeans as well as other Indians for its powerful social and economic influence and was regarded as the capital of the Cherokee nation. The excavations were conducted under contract with the National Park Service and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). Principal investigator, Alfred K. Guthe. Field Directors, J. Worth Greene, Duane H. King, and Gerald F. Schroedl
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002540
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54    
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Title: Photograph of a reconstructed barracks at Fort Southwest Point, Kingston, Tennessee, taken ca. 1980s
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1980
Abstract: This photograph is of a reconstructed barracks at Fort Southwest Point, located near the city of Kingston, in Roane County, Tennessee. The barracks are made with hewn logs and are double penned structures with a fireplace in the middle of the building. The barracks were most likely used to house the enlisted men that occupied the fort. Fort Southwest Point was established in 1792 as a blockhouse post for the territorial militia troops that were protecting white settlers from Indian acts of hostility. By 1797, the militia was replaced by Federal troops whose goals were to maintain peace with the Indians and protect their rights on the frontier. During the years between 1801-1807, the fort was established as the headquarters for the Cherokee Agency. In 1974, archaeological crews from the University of Tennessee unearthed portions of six fort building foundations, the remains of a massive stone wall, and many fort-period artifacts. A 1984 excavation of the site by the Department of Conservation and the City of Kingston located the sites of a total of thirteen buildings. These buildings include an officer's barracks, four blockhouses, and several buildings that are believed to have been barracks. A complementary excavation in 1986 revealed the location of two more buildings, bringing the total to fifteen buildings. The excavation also produced a more detailed examination of the palisade and stone wall enclosures, and uncovered several historic and prehistoric features.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002487
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55    
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Title: Photograph of pit feature filled with refuse at mid-18th century Tomotley
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1974
Abstract: This is a photograph of a pit-feature at the Overhill Cherokee town of Tomotley. The pit was originally used to recover soil or to store food, and was later filled with refuse. Excavations of Overhill Cherokee villages were conducted by the University of Tennessee between 1967 and 1983 as part of the Tellico Archaeological Project. Excavations continued until 1983, and laboratory studies and report preparation continued until 1987. The excavations were conducted in anticipation of the flooding of the Lower Little Tennessee River Valley, in eastern Tennessee, by the Tellico Dam Reservoir. The excavations were conducted under contract with the National Park Service and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). Principal Investigator, Alfred K. Guthe. Field Director, Gerald F. Schroedl.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002532
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56    
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Title: Photograph of a reconstructed blockhouse and stockade wall at Fort Southwest Point, Kingston, Tennessee, taken ca. 1980s
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1980
Abstract: This photograph is of a reconstructed blockhouse and stockade wall at Fort Southwest Point, located near the city of Kingston, in Roane County, Tennessee. The blockhouse is constructed from hewn logs and is one of four reconstructed blockhouses at the fort. The stockade was was first used as a defensive wall, but eventually was used to contain the Cherokees who were to be removed to the west. Fort Southwest Point was established in 1792 as a blockhouse post for the territorial militia troops that were protecting white settlers from Indian acts of hostility. By 1797, the militia was replaced by Federal troops whose goals were to maintain peace with the Indians and protect their rights on the frontier. During the years between 1801-1807, the fort was established as the headquarter for the Cherokee Agency. In 1974, archaeological crews from the University of Tennessee unearthed portions of six fort building foundations, the remains of a massive stone wall, and many fort-period artifacts. A 1984 excavation of the site by the Department of Conservation and the City of Kingston located the sites of a total of thirteen buildings. These buildings include an officer's barracks, four blockhouses, and several buildings that are believed to have been barracks. A complementary excavation in 1986 revealed the location of two more buildings, bringing the total to fifteen buildings. The excavation also produced a more detailed examination of the palisade and stone wall enclosures.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002483
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57    
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Title: Photograph of unexcavated structural ruins at Fort Southwest Point in Kingston, Tennessee, taken circa 1980s
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1980
Abstract: This photograph is of unexcavated structural ruins at Fort Southwest Point, located near the city of Kingston, in Roane County, Tennessee. The ruins show that the structures were composed of stacked mortared and unmortared limestone blocks and, occasionally, river rocks. Fort Southwest Point was established in 1792 as a blockhouse post for the territorial militia troops that were protecting white settlers from Indian acts of hostility. By 1797, the militia was replaced by Federal troops whose goals were to maintain peace with the Indians and protect their rights on the frontier. During the years between 1801-1807, the fort was established as the headquarters for the Cherokee Agency. In 1974, archaeological crews from the University of Tennessee unearthed portions of six fort building foundations, the remains of a massive stone wall, and many fort-period artifacts. A 1984 excavation of the site by the Department of Conservation and the City of Kingston located the sites of a total of thirteen buildings. These buildings include an officer's barracks, four blockhouses, and several buildings that are believed to have been barracks. A complementary excavation in 1986 revealed the location of two more buildings, bringing the total to fifteen buildings. The excavation also produced a more detailed examination of the palisade and stone wall enclosures, and uncovered several historic and prehistoric features. Additional excavations were conducted at Fort Southwest Point in the 1990s.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002509
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58    
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Title: Photograph of an elevated view of excavations at the Chattooga site, taken in 1993
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1993
Abstract: This photograph is of an elevated view of excavations at the Chattooga site in 1993. Chattooga is a Cherokee archaeological site that was formerly called 'Cherokee Town.' Cherokee Town was an 18th century village associated with the Lower town Cherokee communities of northern Georgia and western South Carolina. The site is thought to have been occupied for only 160 years and was abandoned by the Cherokees in the 1740s. This site is given special attention because it retained early 18th century Cherokee material culture. This material culture is difficult to find and distinguish on other Cherokee sites of the same time period. The University of Tennessee (UT) and the Francis Marion National Forest conducted archaeological excavations at Chattooga during 1989-1994. The focus of these excavations was to develop a better understanding of the nature of the historical Cherokee occupation at the site and compare these findings with those found on other 18th century Cherokee sites. As a result of these excavations, archaeologists were able to identify and partially excavate the remains of five superimposed council houses. In addition, the excavations of two winter structures and one summer domestic structure were conducted. Through the use of surface collection, test pit excavations, and remote sensing equipment, vast amounts of artifacts and the location of additional buildings and features were found with minimal disturbance to the site.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002478
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59    
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Title: Photograph of posthole pattern of the mid-18th century Cherokee townhouse and summer pavillion at Tomotley
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1976
Abstract: This is a photograph of posthole patterns dating back to the mid-18th century of two Cherokee townhouses found in Tomotley. The rectangular summer pavillion is on the left and the larger circular winter townhouse or council house is on the right. In these public buildings, social, political, and military meetings were held. Excavations of Tomotley were conducted by the University of Tennessee in 1976 as part of the Tellico Archaeological Project in anticipation of the flooding of the Lower Little Tennessee River by the Tellico Dam Reservoir. The excavations were conducted under contract with the National Park Service and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). Principal investigator, Alfred K. Guthe. Field Director, Gerald F. Schroedl.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002545
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60    
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Title: Photograph of pipe fragments from the Chattooga site, taken in 1993
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1993
Abstract: This is a photograph of pipe fragments collected at the Chattooga site. Chattooga is a Cherokee archaeological site that was formerly called 'Cherokee Town.' Cherokee Town was an 18th century village associated with the Lower town Cherokee communities of northern Georgia and western South Carolina. The site is thought to have been occupied for only 160 years and was abandoned by the Cherokees in the 1740s. This site is given special attention because it retained early 18th century Cherokee material culture. This material culture is difficult to find and distinguish on other Cherokee sites of the same time period. The University of Tennessee (UT) and the Francis Marion National Forest conducted archaeological excavations at Chattooga during 1989-1994. The focus of these excavations was to develop a better understanding of the nature of the historical Cherokee occupation at the site and compare these findings with those found on other 18th century Cherokee sites. As a result of these excavations, archaeologists were able to identify and partially excavate the remains of five superimposed council houses. In addition, the excavations of two winter structures and one summer domestic structure were conducted. Through the use of surface collection, test pit excavations, and remote sensing equipment, vast amounts of artifacts and the location of additional buildings and features were found with minimal disturbance to the site.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002484
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61    
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Title: Photograph of a reconstructed Cherokee cabin at the Red Clay site at Red Clay State Park in Bradley County, Tennessee
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1980
Abstract: This photograph is of a reconstructed Cherokee cabin at the Red Clay site at Red Clay State Park in Bradley County, Tennessee. The cabin is a chinked log cabin with two stories. There are also reconstructed outbuildings that would have associated with the Cherokee farmers' homesteads of the time. By 1832, the state of Georgia had refused the Cherokee the right to hold council meetings unless the meeting dealt with treaties that gave away their lands. The Cherokee decided to move their capital from New Echota, Georgia across the state line to Red Clay, Tennessee because the state of Tennessee did not prohibit the Cherokees from meeting together. Thus, Red Clay became the seat of the Cherokee government in 1832 and lasted until the removal of the Cherokees to the west in 1838. Red Clay was composed of 11 general councils and the meetings were attended by up to 5000 people. It was at Red Clay that the Cherokee learned that they had lost all of their land and would be removed to the west. Red Clay consists of the sacred Blue Hole Spring, a reconstructed council house, and several reconstructed homestead homestead buildings. Red Clay is also the home to the Eternal Flame, lit on April 6, 1984. The Cherokees took hot coals from their council fire at Red Clay on the Trail of Tears. The flame was later taken to Cherokee, North Carolina in the 1950s but was returned to Red Clay in 1984.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002506
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62    
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Title: Photograph of a pit feature excavation at Fort Southwest Point in Kingston, Tennessee, taken circa 1980s
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1980
Abstract: This photograph is of a pit feature being excavated at Fort Southwest Point, located near the city of Kingston, in Roane County, Tennessee. Fort Southwest Point was established in 1792 as a blockhouse post for the territorial militia troops that were protecting white settlers from Indian acts of hostility. By 1797, the militia was replaced by Federal troops whose goals were to maintain peace with the Indians and protect their rights on the frontier. During the years between 1801-1807, the fort was established as the headquarters for the Cherokee Agency. In 1974, archaeological crews from the University of Tennessee unearthed portions of six fort building foundations, the remains of a massive stone wall, and many fort-period artifacts. A 1984 excavation of the site by the Department of Conservation and the City of Kingston located the sites of a total of thirteen buildings. These buildings include an officer's barracks, four blockhouses, and several buildings that are believed to have been barracks. A complementary excavation in 1986 revealed the location of two more buildings, bringing the total to fifteen buildings. The excavation also produced a more detailed examination of the palisade and stone wall enclosures, and uncovered several historic and prehistoric features. Additional excavations were conducted at Fort Southwest Point in the 1990s yielded new information as to the fort's original layout and functions, as well as the life ways of the people who occupied it.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002510
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63    
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Title: Photograph of the Fort Marr Blockhouse in Benton, Tennessee
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1980
Abstract: This photograph is of the Fort Marr Blockhouse located at Benton in Polk County, Tennessee. Fort Marr, also known as 'The Old Fort,' was constructed around 1814 near Old Fort, Tennessee. The fort was positioned along the Old Federal Road and housed troops who were assigned to protect white travelers using the road and the Cherokees from Creek retaliation. The fort was also said to have been used to safeguard supplies and as a campsite for soldiers in transit during the Creek War of 1814-1815. The name Fort Marr was established when the fort was renovated into a stockade to use during the removal of the Cherokee people to the west. It is believed that the fort was named after George Washington Lent Marr, who served under Andrew Jackson during the War of 1812 and the campaign of 1813-1814. After being relocated several times since its construction, it was moved to its present location at Benton in 1965. In 1980, Fort Marr became the property of the Conservation Department of the state of Tennessee to be maintained and used as a historic site.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002501
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64    
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Title: Photograph of a reduced scale reconstruction of a Cherokee council house at Red Clay State Park, Bradley County, Tennessee, taken
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1980
Abstract: This photograph is of a reduced scale reconstruction of the Cherokee council house at the Red Clay site at Red Clay State Park in Bradley County, Tennessee. This reconstruction is of a summer council house, not the original house. The original council house would have been much larger in order to accommodate the nearly 5000 people who would have gathered there. By 1832, the state of Georgia had refused the Cherokee the right to hold council meetings unless the meeting dealt with treaties that gave away their lands. The Cherokee decided to move their capital from New Echota, Georgia across the state line to Red Clay, Tennessee because the state of Tennessee did not prohibit the Cherokees from meeting together. Thus, Red Clay became the seat of the Cherokee government in 1832 and lasted until the removal of the Cherokees to the west in 1838. Red Clay was composed of 11 general councils and the meetings were attended by up to 5000 people. It was at Red Clay that the Cherokee learned that they had lost all of their land and would be removed to the west. Red Clay consists of the sacred Blue Hole Spring, a reconstructed council house, and several reconstructed homestead buildings. Red Clay is also the home to the Eternal Flame, lit on April 6, 1984. The Cherokees took hot coals from their council fire at Red Clay on the Trail of Tears. The flame was later taken to Cherokee, North Carolina in the 1950s but was returned to Red Clay in 1984.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002507
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65    
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Title: Photograph of a Kaolin pipe fragment in situ on the Chattooga townhouse floor, taken in 1993
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1993
Abstract: This is a photograph of a Kaolin pipe fragment in situ on the Chattooga townhouse floor. Kaolin pipes are named for the white clay that they are made from. Kaolin pipes were made in England as early as the 17th century. Over time, the shape, size, and patterns changed on the pipes. Chattooga is a Cherokee archaeological site that was formerly called 'Cherokee Town.' Cherokee Town was an 18th century village associated with the Lower town Cherokee communities of northern Georgia and western South Carolina. The site is thought to have been occupied for only 160 years and was abandoned by the Cherokees in the 1740s. This site is given special attention because it retained early 18th century Cherokee material culture. This material culture is difficult to find and distinguish on other Cherokee sites of the same time period. The University of Tennessee (UT) and the Francis Marion National Forest conducted archaeological excavations at Chattooga during 1989-1994. The focus of these excavations was to develop a better understanding of the nature of the historical Cherokee occupation at the site and compare these findings with those found on other 18th century Cherokee sites. As a result of these excavations, archaeologists were able to identify and partially excavate the remains of five superimposed council houses. In addition, the excavations of two winter structures and one summer domestic structure were conducted.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002511
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66    
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Title: Photograph of an excavation at the Chattooga site, taken in 1993
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1993
Abstract: This is a photograph of a view of the 1993 excavation at the Chattooga site. Chattooga is a Cherokee archaeological site that was formerly called 'Cherokee Town.' Cherokee Town was an 18th century village associated with the Lower town Cherokee communities of northern Georgia and western South Carolina. The site is thought to have been occupied for only 160 years and was abandoned by the Cherokees in the 1740s. This site is given special attention because it retained early 18th century Cherokee material culture. This material culture is difficult to find and distinguish on other Cherokee sites of the same time period. The University of Tennessee (UT) and the Francis Marion National Forest conducted archaeological excavations at Chattooga during 1989-1994. The focus of these excavations was to develop a better understanding of the nature of the historical Cherokee occupation at the site and compare these findings with those found on other 18th century Cherokee sites. As a result of these excavations, archaeologists were able to identify and partially excavate the remains of five superimposed council houses. In addition, the excavations of two winter structures and one summer domestic structure were conducted. Through the use of surface collection, test pit excavations, and remote sensing equipment, vast amounts of artifacts and the location of additional buildings and features were found with minimal disturbance to the site.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002479
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67    
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Title: Photograph of a representative selection of Qualla rim sherds from the Chattooga site, taken in 1993
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1993
Abstract: This is a photograph of a representative selection of Qualla rim sherds from the Chattooga site. Chattooga is a Cherokee archaeological site that was formerly called 'Cherokee Town.' Cherokee Town was an 18th century village associated with the Lower town Cherokee communities of northern Georgia and western South Carolina. The site is thought to have been occupied for only 160 years and was abandoned by the Cherokees in the 1740s. This site is given special attention because it retained early 18th century Cherokee material culture. This material culture is difficult to find and distinguish on other Cherokee sites of the same time period. The University of Tennessee (UT) and the Francis Marion National Forest conducted archaeological excavations at Chattooga during 1989-1994. The focus of these excavations was to develop a better understanding of the nature of the historical Cherokee occupation at the site and compare these findings with those found on other 18th century Cherokee sites. As a result of these excavations, archaeologists were able to identify and partially excavate the remains of five superimposed council houses. In addition, the excavations of two winter structures and one summer domestic structure were conducted. Through the use of surface collection, test pit excavations, and remote sensing equipment, vast amounts of artifacts and the location of additional buildings and features were found with minimal disturbance to the site.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002480
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68    
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Title: Photograph of a scale cabin reconstruction at Red Clay State Park, Bradley County, Tennessee, taken circa 1980s
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1980
Abstract: This photograph is of a scale cabin reconstruction at the Red Clay site at Red Clay State Park in Bradley County, Tennessee. Federal Period Cherokee did not use machine rounded logs or saddle notch in the construction of their log cabins like what the photograph here shows. The Federal Period Cherokee would have cut their own logs and would have used wither dovetail, half-dovetail, or 'V' notching for their cabins. By 1832, the state of Georgia had refused the Cherokee the right to hold council meetings unless the meeting dealt with treaties that gave away their lands. The Cherokee decided to move their capital from New Echota, Georgia across the state line to Red Clay, Tennessee because the state of Tennessee did not prohibit the Cherokees from meeting together. Thus, Red Clay became the seat of the Cherokee government in 1832 and lasted until the removal of the Cherokees to the west in 1838. Red Clay was composed of 11 general councils and the meetings were attended by up to 5000 people. It was at Red Clay that the Cherokee learned that they had lost all of their land and would be removed to the west. Red Clay consists of the sacred Blue Hole Spring, a reconstructed council house, and several reconstructed homestead buildings. Red Clay is home to the Eternal Flame, lit on April 6, 1984. The Cherokees took hot coals from their council fire at Red Clay on the Trail of Tears. The flame was taken to Cherokee, North Carolina in the 1950s but was returned to Red Clay in 1984.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002508
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69    
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Title: Photograph of the post hole pattern of an excavated townhouse at Chattooga, taken in 1993
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1993
Abstract: This is a photograph of the post hole pattern of an excavated townhouse at Chattooga. Townhouses were usually found in villages with a population of more than 350 people and was the most prominent building in the villages. Townhouses were where most of the social, ceremonial, and political activities took place in the village. Chattooga is a Cherokee archaeological site that was formerly called 'Cherokee Town.' Cherokee Town was an 18th century village associated with the Lower town Cherokee communities of northern Georgia and western South Carolina. The site is thought to have been occupied for only 160 years and was abandoned by the Cherokees in the 1740s. This site is given special attention because it retained early 18th century Cherokee material culture. This material culture is difficult to find and distinguish on other Cherokee sites of the same time period. The University of Tennessee (UT) and the Francis Marion National Forest conducted archaeological excavations at Chattooga during 1989-1994. The focus of these excavations was to develop a better understanding of the nature of the historical Cherokee occupation at the site and compare these findings with those found on other 18th century Cherokee sites. As a result of these excavations, archaeologists were able to identify and partially excavate the remains of five superimposed council houses. In addition, the excavations of two winter structures and one summer domestic structure were conducted.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002489
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70    
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Title: Photograph of an overview of the 1993 excavations at Chattooga showing post hole patterns of structures 2 and 3, taken in 1993
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1993
Abstract: This is a photograph of an overview of the 1993 excavations at Chattooga showing post hole patterns of structures 2 and 3. Chattooga is a Cherokee archaeological site that was formerly called 'Cherokee Town.' Cherokee Town was an 18th century village associated with the Lower town Cherokee communities of northern Georgia and western South Carolina. The site is thought to have been occupied for only 160 years and was abandoned by the Cherokees in the 1740s. This site is given special attention because it retained early 18th century Cherokee material culture. This material culture is difficult to find and distinguish on other Cherokee sites of the same time period. The University of Tennessee (UT) and the Francis Marion National Forest conducted archaeological excavations at Chattooga during 1989-1994. The focus of these excavations was to develop a better understanding of the nature of the historical Cherokee occupation at the site and compare these findings with those found on other 18th century Cherokee sites. As a result of these excavations, archaeologists were able to identify and partially excavate the remains of five superimposed council houses. In addition, the excavations of two winter structures and one summer domestic structure were conducted. Through the use of surface collection, test pit excavations, and remote sensing equipment, vast amounts of artifacts and the location of additional buildings and features were found with minimal disturbance to the site.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002485
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Title: Photograph of the interior of Fort Loudoun, British colonial military post from 1756-1760, lower Little Tennessee River
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1975
Abstract: This is a photograph of the interior of Fort Loudoun, a British colonial military post on the lower Little Tennessee River that was occupied from 1756-1760. It was built in Overhill Cherokee territory in what is presently Monroe County and named for John Campbell, the Earl of Loudoun, who was commander-in-chief of British forces in the colonies. William G. De Brahm designed the fort, but abandoned the project because of disagreements he had with Capt. Demerre who commanded the militia troops and British regulars stationed at the post. Survival of this frontier outpost was dependent on good relations with the Cherokees who supplied food for trade goods. During the French and Indian War, tensions began to mount between the Cherokees and the colonists. In March 1760 the Cherokees laid siege to the fort, cutting off supplies and forcing its surrender. Excavations of Fort Loudoun were conducted by the University of Tennessee from 1975-1977 in anticipation of the flooding of the lower Little Tennessee River by the Tellico Dam Reservoir. The excavations were conducted under contract with the National Park Service and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). Principal investigator and Field Director, Carl Kutruff.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002493
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Title: Photograph of unexcavated structural ruins at Fort Southwest Point, Kingston, Tennessee
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1980
Abstract: This photograph is of unexcavated structural ruins at Fort Southwest Point, located near the city of Kingston, in Roane County, Tennessee. The ruins show that the structures were composed of stacked mortared and unmortared limestone blocks and, occasionally, river rocks. Fort Southwest Point was established in 1792 as a blockhouse post for the territorial militia troops that were protecting white settlers from Indian acts of hostility. By 1797, the militia was replaced by Federal troops whose goals were to maintain peace with the Indians and protect their rights on the frontier. During the years between 1801-1807, the fort was established as the headquarters for the Cherokee Agency. In 1974, archaeological crews from the University of Tennessee unearthed portions of six fort building foundations, the remains of a massive stone wall, and many fort-period artifacts. A 1984 excavation of the site by the Department of Conservation and the City of Kingston located the sites of a total of thirteen buildings. These buildings include and officer's barracks, four blockhouses, and several buildings that are believed to have been barracks. A complementary excavation in 1986 revealed the location of two more buildings, bringing the total to fifteen buildings. The excavation also produced a more detailed examination of the palisade and stone wall enclosures, and uncovered several historic and prehistoric features.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002504
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Title: Photograph of the Great Spring at the Red Clay site at Red Clay State Park in Bradley County, Tennessee
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1980
Abstract: This photograph is of the Great Spring at the Red Clay site at Red Clay State Park in Bradley County, Tennessee. The Great Spring, also known as the Blue Hole Spring, is a natural spring that not only supplied the Cherokees who met here with potable water, but was also a sacred and spiritual place for them. By 1832, the state of Georgia had refused the Cherokee the right to hold council meetings unless the meeting dealt with treaties that gave away their lands. The Cherokee decided to move their capital from New Echota, Georgia across the state line to Red Clay, Tennessee because the state of Tennessee did not prohibit the Cherokees from meeting together. Thus, Red Clay became the sear of the Cherokee government in 1832 and lasted until the removal of the Cherokees to the west in 1838. Red Clay was composed of 11 general councils and the meetings were attended by up to 5000 people. It was at Red Clay that the Cherokee learned that they had lost all of their land and would be removed to the west. Red Clay consists of the sacred Blue Hole Spring, a reconstructed council house, and several reconstructed homestead buildings. Red Clay is also the home to the Eternal Flame, lit on April 6, 1984. The Cherokees took hot coals from their council fire at Red Clay on the Trail of Tears. The flame was later taken to Cherokee, North Carolina in the 1950s but was returned to Red Clay in 1984.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002505
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Title: Photograph of the posthole patterns of a mid-18th century Cherokee townhouse at Mialoquo
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1977
Abstract: This is a photograph of posthole patterns of a winter townhouse dating back to the mid-18th century at the Overhill Cherokee village of Mialoquo. Overhill townhouses were situated in a common village plaza. There was generally a winter townhouse, which was a large circular dome in which a fire could be built in the center and an adjacent rectangular open pavilion for summer use. Both were used for public social and political activity. Excavations of Mialoquo were conducted by the University of Tennessee in 1977 as part of the Tellico Archaeological Project in anticipation of the flooding of the Lower Little Tennessee River by the Tellico Dam Reservoir. The excavations were conducted under contract with the National Park Service and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). Principal investigator, Jefferson Chapman. Field Director, Gerald F. Schroedl.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002548
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Title: Photograph of archaeologists mapping the surface of the Chattooga site before the 1993 excavations, taken in 1993
Photographer : Gerald F. Schroedl
Date Created: 1993
Abstract: This is a photographic image of archaeologists mapping the surface of the Chattooga site before the beginning of the 1993 field season. Chattooga is a Cherokee archaeological site that was formerly called 'Cherokee Town.' Cherokee Town was an 18th century village associated with the Lower town Cherokee communities of northern Georgia and western South Carolina. The site is thought to have been occupied for only 160 years and was abandoned by the Cherokees in the 1740s. This site is given special attention because it retained early 18th century Cherokee material culture. This material culture is difficult to find and distinguish on other Cherokee sites of the same time period. The University of Tennessee (UT) and the Francis Marion National Forest conducted archaeological excavations at Chattooga during 1989-1994. The focus of these excavations was to develop a better understanding of the nature of the historical Cherokee occupation at the site and compare these findings with those found on other 18th century Cherokee sites. As a result of these excavations, archaeologists were able to identify and partially excavate the remains of five superimposed council houses. In addition, the excavations of two winter structures and one summer domestic structure were conducted. Through the use of surface collection, test pit excavations, and remote sensing equipment, vast amounts of artifacts and the location of additional buildings and features were found with minimal disturbance to to the site.
Tennessee State Department of Education Eras:
     Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
Collection: Frank H. McClung Museum Photographic Collection
Contributing Institution: Frank H. McClung Museum
URL: http://idserver.utk.edu/?id=200800000002486
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