Tennessee Documentary History
  Multiple Collection Search     View bookbag 
your bookbag has 0 items 


Title:[Journal of Tennessee Cavalry, 2nd Regiment] 1847 Apr. 9 - May 4 : a machine readable transcription of an image
Author:Caswell, William Richard
Availability:

This work is the property of the Special Collections Library, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. It may be used freely by individuals for research, teaching, and personal use as long as this statement of availability is included in the text. For all other use contact the Special Collections Librarian, Hoskins Library, University of Tennessee, 1401 Cumberland Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37996. (865) 974-4480.

Date: April 9, 1847
Extent: 22p
Summary:This document is the journal kept by William Richard Caswell, Captain of the Tennessee Cavalry, 2nd Regiment, during the period of April 9-May 4, 1847. Caswell was Captain of these volunteer soldiers during the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). The journal documents the battles, travels, and personal experiences of the Tennessee soldiers, as well as other companies they encountered in Mexico. Also included is the master roll of soldiers that are in Caswell's company, including their name, rank, and condition.
Collection:Tennessee Calvary, 2nd Regiment
Box:MS-1041
Folder:n/a
Document:sc093
Keywords:




Page [1]  view page image

Master Roll of Capt [Captain] Caswells Company Tennessee Cavalry 4th March 1847




Page [2]  view page image

Wm R. [William Richard] Caswell Capt [Captain] At Jalapa
Saml [Samuel] W Bell 1st St [Sergeant] Do [Ditto]
Calvin Gossitt 2nd Do At Vera Crus [Vera Cruz] — Sick
James Anderson 3rd Do. Do
David W Nelson 1st Sergeant Do — Sick
Benj [Benjamin] F McCarty 2nd Do Jalapa
James H. Lones 3rd Do Sick in the Hospital at Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Wm. [William] C. Headrick 4th Do Died in Hospital at Vera Crus [Vera Cruz] 2nd May [added: 1847]
C. B. Nance 1st Corporal Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Daniel McCall 2nd Do Jalapa
S. G. Swan 3rd Do Do
H. Lipton 4th Do Do
Anderson, Mathew N. Private Sick in the Hospital at Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Anderson, Lewis Do Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Brady, Robt [Robert] C. " [Ditto] Sick in Hospital at Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Bounds, T. H. " Left behind in Texas with Company and [added: returned home]
Brooks, Robert " Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Campbell, Wm. [William] A " Detained to wait on the sick in the [added: Hospital Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]]
Cameron, Alexander " Jalapa
Cameron, Robert " Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Comes, Wm. [William] C. " Sick in Hospital at Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Channabury, Inmon " Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Chamberloin Wm. [William] H. " Wounded by accidental discharge of terbine [turbine] in [unclear] & returned home
Coble, Pharoah " Jalapa
Cotner, Corbin " Do
Cummings, Uniah " Discharged at Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Doyle, David " Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Doyle, John " Do — sick
Doyle, Jacob " Left in Hospital at Matamoros sick
Duncan, Geo. [George] W " Left sick in [unclear: Arkansas ] and died
Day, John H. " Jalapa
Ford, Edward " Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Fortner, Arch " Jalapa
Gourly, John Private Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Hankins, Abraham " Sick in Hospital at Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Hankins, J. G. " Do Do Do
Heard, Wm [William] A " Jalapa
[unclear: Hi Ans, Jao E. ] " Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Hoad, Harvey " Do
Jackson, Marcus " Sick in Hospital at Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Johnson, Robert " [unclear: Detained ] to wait on sick in Hospital [added: at Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]]
King, James " Sick in Hospital at Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Kirby, James " Discharged at [unclear: Lompice ]
Knox, S. B. " Jalapa
Lindsey, Wm. [William] A " Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Lones, John " Do — Sick
Looney, Abraham " Jalapa
Love, Jno. [Jonathon] M " Vera Crus [Vera Cruz] — Sick
McAffey, Thos. [Thomas] " Left in Hospital at [unclear: nea ton ] ones sick
McCall, Jue " Jalapa
Newman, Saml [Samuel] " Discharged at Tampico
Plumbe, Jno [Jonathon] M " Do Do
Portice, W. J " Jalapa
Peston, Edward " Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Parton, Benj. [Benjamin] " [unclear: Detained ] & attached to Regimental Hospital
Renfro, Jas [Jason] " Jalapa
Roberson, Jno [John] L " Killed by being shot by a Mexican from the [added: [unclear: chapperal ] while in search of beef near [unclear: Sumes Gens ]]
Roberson, R. B. " Jalapa
Scott, Edward L " Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Sieles, H. J " Left in Hospital at Matamoros sick
Simpson, J. G. " Sick in Hospital at Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Skiggs, H. C. " Broke his thigh by a fall from his horse in [added: Texas and left behind]
Skiggs, [unclear: Tininon ] " Discharged at Tampico
Smith, Jno. [Jonathon] A " Sick in Hospital at Vera Crus [Vera Cruz]
Shipe, Jackson " Jalapa
Snoddy, Thos. [Thomas] A " Do
Stine, Charles " Do
Suttle, Noah " Vera Crus [Vera Cruz] — sick




Page [3]  view page image

April 9. A detachment [added: portion]of the company consisting of [added: the] 22 [added: mounted] men, with Capt. C [Captain Caswell] and Lieut. [Lieutenant] Bell ) marched [added: as pioneers] of the Regt. [Regiment] marched to-day advanced guard of Gen. [General] Pattersons Division on the road[added: way to] the Halls of the Montezeunas — we regret very much to leave our [added: dismounted] comrades, exposed to dangers [added: of sickness], always incident to stationary soldiers campe [camp], & especially in the environs of Vera Cruz so noted for its sickness at seasons of the year now approaching and near at hand — Scott A. Hankins , Suttle and Earnes , were neither of them will when we left, but we hope [added: that] soon for our horses and friend left at Tampico will arrive, and the [unclear: balance ] of the company will overtake us — Our route lay for several miles upon the beach, and the [added: heavy march upon the sand] deep of the long line of infantry which follow us, cause us to rejoice that we are cavalry, and we are particularly favored in being furnished with a baggage waggon [wagon] [added: for the transportation of our provisions & co. Whilst the infantry pack 4 days supply in their hover-sacks] where we applied and yesturday [yesterday] to Gen. Patterson for transportation, we told him if it could not be had without detriment to the service, we could march without it — "I know" said the Genl [General] "you would do so, your company has [added: I know you would go no in any way never given [unclear: one ] any] been less trouble to [unclear: use ] "the. We proceeded sufficiently far in advance to halt [unclear: ashore ] the beach, and take a delightful bathe [bath] in the salt surf of the gulf. — We struck out upon the turnpike, amid the sand hills with the hot sun beaming down almost perpendicularly upon us — At the distance of five miles for we came to the village of Santa Fe — which we found to be almost [added: entirely] depopulated. A [added: small] fort was erected upon a mound near the read; and at a bridge we passed [added: it was] torn up, and obstructions of large stones — [unclear: surrounded to ] placed in the road — all looked as if the Mexicans have contemplated disputing every step we might attempt to take toward their holy city — We passed within view, on our right hand, upon an eminence, the private residence of Santa Anna , called Mango de Clana — We are told that Santa Anna, owns all the land for 8 or 10 leagues on either both sides the road from Vera Cruz to Jalapa, from the rent of which he must derive an immense revenue, for one of his tenants told us he paid annually for this farm the sum of $650.00 — besides this the cattle which fill the wsole whole wood (after you have advanced a short distance into the interior) are all his private property and have this brand of A. L. — the initials perhaps of Antonio Lopez. — Our camp for the might [gap] the side of one of the many long and excellent bridges which are built of




Page [4]  view page image

stone and cement — we had selected the encampton for our little corps beneath the deep shade of cocoanut [coconut] [added: &] palm and trees — with but the insects below and the harsh croaking of the chaperal [chaparral] cocks & parrotts [parrots] in the trees above, prevented us from sleeping much during the night — besides these annoyances we made a march of 16 miles and left our waggans [wagons] trad did not arrive until very late, so that we had not other supper, than such as Santa Annas beef afforded —

April 10th On account of the many soldiers breaking down, and the late arrival of the train, we only march 7 1/2 miles to-day and halted at a stream, over which another bridge of great length and superior masonry has been constructed with much labor. The Our mounted men were stationed at head quarters, apart from the main body of the Division, and thereby fell into the luck of some harder service than has been our want of late. We were required to divide the watches of the night, and keep a picket guard upon the road; and while some were thus employed (Lt. [Lieutenant] Bell) taking a watch as sentinel in turn with the men), the others rolled themselves in their blankets & lay down beneath the wide spreading limbs of an immense and beautiful forest.

April 11th At 1/2 past 12 o'clock this morning Capt. C [Captain Caswell] with ten men were called into the saddle, to transmit to Genl. [General] Twiggs , at the National Bridge a dispatch forwarded from Gen. [General] Scott — This detachment proceeded with much caution, in the star light of night, moving in a body with two men from 50 to 100 yards in distance, — Our horses feet clattered upon the paved turnpike as we marched amidst perfect stillness from all other sound, and [added: after marching some 3 miles] one solitary light was visible in the a lerge [large] village (saw was Servaca ) which as we approached ma exhibited to us, a body of soldiers, with muskets whose bayonets bristled in between the light & our eys [eyes] — they proved to be a body of straglers [stragglers] from Genl. [General] Twiggs Division. We could see but little else than the whi. As we rode across the celebrated Puntia Da National, the beautiful scene of a Division encampment with all their fires blazing, met our eyes — As [added: Where] we halted at Gen. [General] Twiggs' quarters, we found him ready ready to march the only 3 o'clock — we delivered the dispatches; and were informed that




Page [5]  view page image

[that] the Mexicans had abandoned this position (which the Gen. [General][added: 3] declared could be maintained by 500 men, against all the world) several days before his arrival — The Genl. [General] said the Mexicans were fortified in the mountains 20 miles distant, their force was variously estimated at from 2 to 15,000 men — " I shall fight them" said he to-morrow at 10 o'clock, and I shall whip them" I would like to have you with me, but I cannot wait — I shall halt my train at Rio Blaveo , to-night to-morrow I shall march out, whip them, and return to my camp — Corporal Swan , privates Portis & Renfro went back with a communication for Gen. [General] Scott. Lt. [Lieutenant] Bell came forward with the balance of the [unclear: marching ] command at the head of the Division, whilst those who had came forward during the night guarded the village & bridge — The Bridge [added: formerly called the Kings bridge.] [added: is superior to any work of the kind we have ever seen & said to be one of the best structures of the kind in the world] about 300 yards long — of solid stone & cemented over — having seven arches spanning the main stream, built a century past by the Spaniards and [added: in 1802 by the merchants of Vera Cruz & Mexico ] [added: under the patronage of the Government] now having scarcely a crack or break [added: in or] upon it. and with all things Upon The mountains which rise almost perpendicularly upon each side with [unclear: crowning ] batteries upon their heights make it [added: one of an impregnable position if defended with any spirit] the strongest positions for defence in all the world. This morning after delivering our despatches [dispatches] to Genl [General] [added: Twiggs] Scott our we made fast our horses to fed them & lay down [added: slept upon our blankets] around the roots of a large fores tree, whose branches held many nests of the jackdaw, and the [added: serenade of these] chattering anim birds, was no interruption to the sound sleep of men who rode the night march which we had made. We were awakened by a Mexican man and woman, who came all trembring [trembling] with fright to ask the [added: our] protection from soldiers of our army — we went to their hut and found sight of Gen. [General] Twiggs' men, who had turned up every thing in their house upside[added: searched thro [through] their house in every corner and but] had contented themselves with taking only a large [unclear: derrijohn ] of "aqua diente" over which they were making merry — we sent them forward and relieved the poor inmates of the house from further terror — for which they were grateful enough to lend us vessels in which to cook our breakfast the elements of which we had procured from the Commissary of the first Division.




Page [6]  view page image

April 12th — The paved road over which we marched is [added: graded,] paved, & [added: mostly] walled on each side — at an expense of labor which astonishes every [added: one who may see it] but the [added: present] degenerate race of Mexicans permit it to wear away without attempting to sustain it & keep it up — But excellent as the road is — the long march [added: without water] and [added: the] intense heat [added: rays]of the sun, from [added: whose] the burning heat of whi we could find us shelter caused many of the Infantry to fall [added: exhausted] by the way saide [side] seventy of whom died — and one others thus left behind were attacked by the Mexican scouts, one dragoon killed, and two privates of the Pennsylvania volunteers were wounded — We overtook Gen. [General] Twigs [Twiggs] Division at Rio Blancho — At which place he [added: Col. [Colonel] Harney with the US [United States] Dragoons] had overtaken the advanced guard of the Mexican Army now in a position [added: at Cierra [Sierra] Gorda ] 4.5 & [unclear: 0?6? ] miles distant with fortifications and batteries of artillery upon the mountain heights which overlook the road on both sides. The advanced guard of the Mexicans were pursued, and [unclear: resounoitering ] parties sent out with the [unclear: augnesser ], and they [added: who] drew the fire of the [unclear: suenry's ] cannon and several volleys of musketry — Capt. [Captain] Johnson of the Topographical Engines and two or three privates were wounded — In this little skirmish the enemy has sustained some loss but we do not know how many — We selected a hut [added: in the village of Plan Del Rio ] for our head quarters, and [unclear: lareated ] our horses in rear of the hut — spread down our blankets to rest upon that we might be ready for the action which we expected to take place in a few hours —

Shipe was sleeping upon his blanket on the floor of the hut, & some soldier in wantonness had jerked a large, heavy iron grape shot, which fell thro [through] the thatched roof of the hut upon the floor near to Shipe and the was noise of the fall waked him & jumping up he enquired where that came from — Looney asked him if he had not heard the roar of the cannon — Shipe opened his eyes (Looney says) as large as billiard balls and declared he had slept so sound and had heard so many cannon before [added: at Vera Cruz as well as this morning] that he did not awake until the shot fell near his head —

The citizens of this village have fled precipitately and left all the [unclear: cambrous ] furniture of their huts — There is a small cathedral here with some rich and handsome ornaments — one image of the virgin large as life dressed in silk robes of blue & yellow with earrings & broaches of gold; holding [added: the image of] are infant in her hands which tho [though] the most natural [unclear: eposulation ] of a sacred illustration we have yet seen was that of our [unclear: savior ] in the [unclear: Sepulere ], which we saw in the grand church of Vera Cruz — There is upon a [added: mountain] spur of the close to the bridge across the rio blanco [Rio Blanco] a fort, grey with age the wooden works of which have rotted down or burned long since — It looks as if it had been in has times the castle




Page [7]  view page image

[added: 5] of some feudal chief, into which he could retire raise his draw bridge, reconnoiter the [added: an] enemy & fire upon them from the loop holes of & embrasures of his castle, perfectly secure against all the world, unless by investment with siege artillery, which alone in time might batter down his thick stone walls — Swan, Portis, and Renfro reached camp to-night this evening having travelled thro [through] from Vera Cruz to-day with despatches [dispatches] from Gen [General] Scott to Gen. [General] Patterson — a hazardous adventure which is plain from the fact that other despatches [dispatches] with the same force have been cut off by the enemy — Swan reports our men at Vera Cruz as doing well —

April 13th Our company were sent out to-day with four waggons [wagons] for forage — We found a large supply of [added: quantity] some 600 bushels; which the Mexicans were engaged (just before we arrived at the place) in transporting upon mules to the Mexican camp — Loaded Our waggons [wagons] were loaded (& the quantity reported to the Qr. [Quarter] Master who paid them at the rates of about $1.00 per bushel) meanwhile we made our dinner upon parched corn — returned safe to camp not having seen a Mexican soldier in our route — tho [though] we understood a body of 50 horsemen crossed the road one or two miles behind us — This evening orders were issued to the army to be ready [added: with arms — 2 days supply of provisions & water] by 3 o'clock in the morning, for an attack by upon the enemy by storming the heights — This Order was countermanded by Gen. [General] Patterson (who being very sick & confined to his bed, the plan of attack had been designed by Genls. [Generals] Twiggs & Pillow ) — And the assault determined to be delayed until the arrival of Gen. [General] Scott About 9 o'clock at night quite a stir was made in our camp by the Mexicans firing as volley of musketry upon our picket guard (Dragoons) or rather firing in the direction of the guard for the cowardly scamps were afraid to approach near enough to do any mischief — or even to draw the fire from our pickets — They may consider this quite a bold venture in their system of warfare for they fight (as they call it) some great battles [added: against each other] and sometimes from our side of the city of Mexico to the other for weeks without doing any mischief & this An and It is said that at Palo Alto , the Mexican Cavalry were ordered to




Page [8]  view page image

charge a part of our lines — They came galloping down to within about 2 1/2 miles of and halted — Our men were drawn into a square to receive them, but never thought of firing up at such a distance — When Genl. [General] Vega was taken prisoner, in a conversation with Majr. [Major] Bliss , he asked as if with some pride, what the Majr. [Major] thought of the charge — which was as much as to say, if we would not such a movement by such a name. And indeed it is supposed they learned at Buene [Buena] Vista , from Col [Colonel] Humphrey Marshall what we would call a charge.

April 14th At day light half of the men were sent out with the beef contractor, to protect him, whilst collecting beef for the army — At 9 o'clock the others were ordered to [added: the] saddle to bear despatches [dispatches] to Gen. Scott — & to take along with us the whole company — Receiving the despatches [dispatches], we passed the beef range where we were joined by the detachmt. [detachment] first sent out & without baggage or any encumbrance except our arms proceeded towards Vera Cruz — Near the National bridge we saw the Advance guard of Genl. Scotts escort, approaching — When they discovered us, They halted, and rode several times across the road several times as if watching us with much suspicion, then one man of them alone galloped [added: rode] forward about 100 yards, halted, and after looking awhile, turned went back under whip& spur and al proceeded with the his comrades to give an alarm of Mexicans approaching —[added: but they we adopted means of undeceiving thru [through]] The company halted and Capt C [Captain Caswell] galloped forward and stoped them [inquiring]enquiring [stopped] if they could not distinguish us from the enemy — They said they could see we did not have the uniform of Dragoons & that the Captain had on a red jacket from all which they took us to be the enemy. At the National Bridge, we delivered our despatches [dispatches] to Gen. [General] Scott; who with his staff, admired the celerity of our movements — We were supplied with forage — [added: ordered to rest] rested two orders hours & to follow the General which we did. At the first ranche [ranch] we came to a company of Dragoons in guard of 20 waggons [wagons] loading to the coral found there. They had been without water & provisions during the day — We guarded the train until they watered their horses from a stream 1 1/2 miles distant — This delay detained us until in the night, in getting in camp —




Page [9]  view page image

April 15th Having performed hard service, we were allowed to rest our horses to-day — and they need such rest, for by the hard ride on yesturday [yesterday] the backs of most of them ware [were] hurt; and we have but scanty rations of forage for them. We lay about [added: during the day] in the shade of the trees and of our hut; some of us bathing in a pool of water we found at us great distance from camp, in a deep gleen overhung by trees, shrubbery & vines — into which the cl [added: e] ar [clear] water of the stream poured thro' [through] a channel in the rocky bed down a steep declivity: — We have been considerably annoyed [added: in the day] by soldiers attempting to tear down our hut for fire wood and at night by their seeking to lodgings in our already crowded room — Our fellow came about bed time and enquired [inquired] if there was room a place where he could sleep, some of us told him [added: in jest] he could find accommodations, accommodations at Wolfingers tavern which was next door — he understood the joke, and we heard him enquire [inquire] at the open shed adjoining, for the landlord, he received an answer from several of the soldiers who were crowded under the shed — one ordered the ostler to take his horse — another directed the bar keeper to furnish him some refreshment, one told him he could sleep in the barn (a building not known in Mexico) at half price, another ordered him a servant to show the gentleman into No. [Number] 10, on the third floor. But the poor fellow finally slept in the road, perhaps to dream of the comfortable accommodations ordered by our neighbours [neighbors] to whom we had refered [referred] him.

April 16th We were mounted at 4 o'clock this morning to guard the beef contractor & butchers, with about 8 or 10 infantry soldiers who went out to shoot the [unclear: beares ] — Halted at a Ranch 8 miles from camp, and where we found some cattle, and soon after, the butchering commenced, two Mexicans shewed [showed] themselves, in the road, unarmed — They were suspected as spies, but being unarmed were not molested — We kindled a fire in the [added: upon the cement floor] large hall of [added: a] castle in the ranche [ranch], which was furnished with tables as if prepared for a banqueting hall, and cooked some of the fresh beef for our breakfast — After which 5 or 6 of us proceeded into a deep valley 1/4 miles distant to search for water, and found the coolest running water we have found[added: yet] had in this country — After procuring a refreshing drink, Capt. C [Captain Caswell] Lt. [Lieutenant] Bell & Thomas Snoddy rode along the narrow& steep path which led to a broad fine cultivated valley below, whilst the other men returned to camp — At a turn in the path, a dark ugly Ranchero presented himself and raising his escopet took deliberate aim at the Capt. [Captain] who was in front with his red jacket on, but fortunately the gun missed fire; — neither of us were prepared to return the fire, and such a thing as an attack upon an armed for Americans being so uncommon it was supposed that the Ranchero was sustained by a strong party — The Capt. [Captain] Lt. [Lieutenant] & Snoddy turned and galloped up the hill to the company — Not finding beef enough the butcher took two waggons [wagons] and went on to the next Ranche [Ranch] upon the road — H. Tipton, Heard, Cameron, and John MCall guarded these two waggons [wagons], and soon after they left, as company of Dragoons with a train of waggons [wagons], passed on to the same ranche [ranch] for corn — The body of our company remained at the castle, with horses saddled and close to the door — Everything being quiet, we all by threes took a little sleep. As Tipton and his three comrades returned just in advance of the waggons — They were fired upon by a body of Mexicans, who had way laid them [added: upon the hill side in view from our position] . Heard was slightly wounded in the elbow and a shot lodged in [added: broke][added: sealed]the stock of his gun [added: a ball grazed Fortners horse and one was lodged in Cotners saddle.]— Our 4 men returned the fire & retreated but Tipton's gun snapped & he halted within 25 yards of them




Page [10]  view page image

[added: 8] put on a fresh cap r knocked the powder into the tube and fired with as good aim so he could take — The beef contractor at the first alarm, dashed on in great alarm [added: precipitation], leaving his hat & blanket. We heard the alarm and mounted in haste, the Mexicans had now shewed [showed] a part of their force in the road and as we charged in full speed they fled into the thick chaperal — We dismounted the except JL [James Lones] & RB Roberson and Day and Portis who remained to protect the horses, and the rest of us, took the chaperal, and proceeded cautiously paralel withe [parallel with] the road, until we came to the place where the Mexican had left the road — Not finding them we came into the road to remount and just at this time, the party with the horses were attacked Jno. [John] Roberson when sitting upon his horse had discovered a Mexican [added: man] in the chaperal, but least he might fire upon one of our own men (for it was precisely the place where MCarty had first gone into the chaperal) dismounted and and went upon a rise just outside the road — The It was a Mexican and who had concealed himself in the bushes, and at this time fired shot Roberson thro' [through] the thigh with an ounce ball & put a shot into his hand — As soon as he fired R. B. Roberson steped [stepped] [unclear: firiuly ] forward and took [added: shot his carbine without] good aim at the Mexican as he ran. Portis also had two or three [added: a] shot either at him or his comrades. The report [added: of the first gun] was heard by the company, and all ran to the rescue, shouting to the men to hold their ground — The waggons [wagons] by this time had passed the [added: first] place of attack, and the beef shooters [added: on foot coming up] returning just at this time, discovered a part of the enemy near the road, fired upon them and drove them back. We put Roberson into a waggon [wagon] [added: & bound up his wounds] he suffered very much at first, the bone is fractured high up on the thigh, but he was brought in upon a litter and a bed spread upon the floor of our hut, and medical aid immediately at hand — he bears the pain with a great fortitude — By the bye we brought our beef to camp tho [though] we had some trouble to get our share of it from the commissary — Gen [General] Worth with his Division arrived in camp during the night —

April 17th Reconnoitering [added: & working] parties have been constantly moving around the enemies works — The Mexican flag has been hoisted this morning upon [added: a fort on the right of their line of fortification on] a height, in view of our whole camp — We were sent out this evening with staff & Engineer officers as [added: a] guard — And had a view of the enemys line and position, being near enough to see their movements of individuals; they were all under arms, and appeared to be in expectation every movement of an attack — Upon [added: Around] the other end of the line Genl [General] Twiggs with his Division has been [added: Cutting out a road and] fighting them all day — by spells — and has succeeded in taking one height which enable to pass their left flank and prepare for assiling [assailing] them in rear upon the main road — at one time Majr. [Major] Childs with 18 men carried the main mountain height which had been left unguarded but was compelled to retire for want of support. Genl [General] Worth arrived with his Division to-day. A company of Dragoons and a company of Infantry were sent out to-day as guard of our beef contractor. They were attacked by the same body of Rancheros, with whom we had a fight on yesturday [yesterday], killing one man and wounding two others. They came off without returning their fire, or assiling [assailing] them in their fortress having their dead man on the field [added: & without their [unclear: bear. ]]




Page [11]  view page image

Sunday April 18th. In obedience to orders, we mounted at 6 o'clock having had an early breakfast and fed and watered our horses. our arms were in order, our horse equipments all snugly fitted on. We formed our company as the [the] several regiments of the Brigade formed their lines — We U knew we were going into a battle [added: with an enemy] who by reason of their strong position must necessarily make a stand; and many [added: of our comrades] who were now standing under arms, must would never live thro' [through] the day; we thought of [added: the] character of our State and county, of our individual character, and all resolved rather to die upon the field than discredit either — Our company marched at the head of the column, until we [added: left the main road &] commenced the escent of the eminence upon which the enemy was in position, where we were to make the attack — There were only twenty of us including the Captain & 1st Lieutenant; of the whole Brigade who were mounted — We were ordered to follow in the rear of the column [added: from their foot of the hill] that the clatter of our horses jest [just] might not notify the Mexicans of the silent approach designed and for the same reason the Genl. [General] Staff and field officers all dismounted — Slowly, silently and with solemn thoughts, but with firmness and determination, we moved along by one of the many paths which mean traversed the thick chaperal upon the declivity — The medical officers [added: with their cases of instruments, bandages, & other implements & attendants] took their position, as they supposed beyond the reach of the enemys shot, from which however they soon retreated. We followed on the rear of the column. Before the storming party (consisting of the 2nd. Tennessee [added: on the right, with the 2nd Penn. [Pennsylvania] as a reserve] & 1st Pennsylvania Regimts. [Regiments] on the left ) with the 1st Ten [Tennessee] as a reserve) had attained their respective positions in line of battle; the enemy opened their fire, with 17 Cannon bearing upon us, and 1500 escopets and muskets — Col. [Colonel] Haskells Regt. [Regiment] (2nd Ten [Tennessee]) [added: dashing from the cover of the Chaperal] made the charge in the face of all this armament, thro' [through] an open space in front of the breast works but covered with brush in many places waist deep, for the purpose of impeding a charge — The gallantry and




Page [12]  view page image

[added: 10] indeed the desperation of this attempt, with the immense loss in killed and wounded [added: the military] the [added: our] history of our country will record, and fame display the names of those who fought and fell. Our Company had gone beyond the point of prudence, tho [though] we prefered [preferred] going beyond rather than halting on this side — The Balls fall thick around— us, [added: and soldiers fell behind us as well as in our front,] but fortunately we escaped unhurt — Every moment amidst the roar of arms, we expected to receive notice that the enemy's works were carried, when we proposed to ride thro' [through], and fall upon them with our sabres — But instead of receiving such notice [added: our forces were compelled to retire from before a position which with the soldiers who sustained it, might have been maintained against [unclear: some ] men.] men all bloody from the wounds received, came staggering along the path bore supported by their comrades, others etirely [entirely] disabled and dripping with blood were borne [born] along towards the quarters of the Surgeons and shame to say some cowards came running [added: in great panic] whom we tried to rally and many of them we did halt and return to [added: their] several companies — whilst others ran hastily past toward our camp but few of these [added: we are proud to say] we Tennesseeans [Tennesseans] — Then we commenced our labors of the day — Carrying orders, despatched [dispatched] and intelligence from and between the officers and different corps and between each wing of the army — transporting the wounded [added: to the hospital] and conveying water to those who were almost famished for its want — In wan this service [added: several of us] we were at different times misled by the numerous paths, and galloped suddenly within point blank [added: musket] shot of the enemy's lines — who could have easily cut us off, but they had suffered so severely by the attack of Genl. [General] Twiggs' Division that they were had now [added: [unclear: twisted ] flags of truce &] proposed to propose to capitulate, and the fight had every where ceased. When they made their proposition — Gen. [General] Scott replied they must surrender unconditionally, and that too within 15 minutes which they acceded to — And immediately upon receiving this intelligence, we escorted Genl. [General] Pillow round the road to the breast works in the road, where we met the prisoners whose arms were surrendered thrown into a heap and broke and burned — Six Genl. [General] officers taken prisoners among them Genl. [General] La Vega , Genl [General] Perryn




Page [13]  view page image

[added: 11]

6000 prisoners of war were guarded into camp. Santa Anna fled in great precipitation leaving his private carriage, 20,000 dollars [added: in silver coin] and his wooden leg. how many soldiers escaped we do not know, but their number when we went into action is said to have been 15000 —

When we returned to camp we found our brother and comrade John L. Roberson , whom we had left this morning as we all supposed, in a fair way to recover from his wounds; now evidently beyond the hopes of recovery — he was ho calm, and in but little pain, made no complaint and soon and suddenly died, with the fortitude of a man, and having received the wound of which he died, fighting like a gallant soldier the battles of his country.

Genl. [General] Twiggs' Division commenced the action upon the enemy's left flank, between1/2 past seven o'clock; he opened a battery, from the height he gained on yesturday [yesterday], and stormed the castle height; whilst [added: with] the Rifle Regiment, the 2nd. 3rd. & 7th. Infantry — The height was so elevated that their cannon could not be made to bear upon our troops in ascending the hill — The two columns which stormed the heights covered about one half the face of the hill, which was almost a perfect hill cone; They marched up within about 30 yards of the enemy's breast works, formed in line of battle, breathed a moment — Then charged in order [added: the enemy remained] until the powder burned their faces as our soldiers fired — And Genl. [General] Vasques who was killed here had his face powder burned and fell by his cannon. Genl. [General] Shields Brigade, which acted in concert with Genl. [General] Twiggs bore [added: marched] to the right [added: & rear] of the castle hill [added: took a battery of small [small] cannons] in order to take a [unclear: pear ] upon the road in order to [added: that killing men of [unclear: me ] & taking position] intercepted the army and baggage train when they should [added: attempted to] retreat. This they effected admirably for the Illinois troops [unclear: routed ] the division that was sent to oppose them and formed immediately upon the road and to so slaughtered the drivers & mules of the Mexican train that they stopped the whole of it — but just as they were doing this the Sancers that were retreating with Santa Anna formed & charged down upon them but they were being in the thick chaporal [chaparral] by road side [added: &] gave them such a tremendous fire that they (vonased) left and precipitately fled, and were [unclear: nar [added: ai??] a jain ] seen upon that field of battle. By this time [added: the] enemy had surrendered and the Dragoons were ordered to follow those that had fled and they [unclear: pursued ] Santa Anna [added: the [unclear: saneer ]] so hotly that they [added: killed overtook and killed about 20 of their number] is said to have left his [unclear] & fled upon a [unclear: tracklanale ] & that he lost his wooden leg which some of the dragoons found and brought back to our camp at Rio Blanch — But just as Genl. [General] Shields at the head of his brigade had so effectually & gallantly completed the toast to him assigned he was wounded (and supposed mortal) and fell, but should he die his name will live while the history of our country is extant for, these are registered the many of the sound & brave —




Page [14]  view page image

[added: 12]

April 19th To-day Our first duty, was the burial of our deceased friend Jno. [John] L. Roberson a rude coffin (which can seldom be obtained on such occasions) by much industry was obtained, [added: procured] in which his his body was placed — The company flag spread over the coffin — At the appointed time, our funeral procession moved from our quarters in the following order — 1st Pennsylvania band of (music, the dead march) 2nd An armed escort of soldiers under command of Capt. [Captain] Foster . [added: 3d The Corpse] 4th Officers of the company with the brother of the deceased — 5th The horse of the deceased caparisoned, with ordinen the usual equipments, and bearing the arms, boots and spurs, of his late rider. 6th The members of the company — 7th The friends and acquaintances [added: generally of the deceased] among the Tenn. [Tennessee] volunteers. We deposited him in a grave at the foot of the hill below the cathedral, and over him, we fired the customary military salute, shed our heart felt tears in silent sorrow — and returned to our military duties. Most of us took visited the battle field to-day — The mangled bodies of our comrades lay thick in front of the breast works and within their nearest forts, strip'd [stripped] & robbed of [of] all that was of any value about them — We [added: The 2nd Tennessee Regt [Regiment]] had made the charge without firing a gun, intending to reserve their fire until they reached he walls — consequently there was were none of the enemy killed (except one man who was killed by some one who fired against orders — But upon the heights where Genl [General] Twiggs had charge the dead bodies of the Mexicans lay thick and in piles — And to-day they were burying their dead whom they treated with liss [less] of the feelings of humanity than we would have done a butchered hog tying them by the feet and dragging them down the hill. A French surgeon was seen at very skillful work among the wounded of both armies — we were told he had joined the Mexican army with the proviso that he should be allowed to attend the sick or wounded of our Army as well as our enemies — And had performed several "handsome operations" as our surgeons declared in amputating the limbs of some of our wounded soldiers —




Page [15]  view page image

[added: 13]

April 20th Moved off at the head of the Brigade at an early hour — Marched passed the enemy & works, and having a full view of their stregth [strength] — which struck us as being powerful and strong as nature and the art of engineers could conceive as we passed the base of the castle hill, And for several miles the stench of the dead Mexicans, still unburied and the dead mules shot down, was almost interable [enterable]; and occasionally during all the day we passed dead [added: Mexican] men and horses — Our camp for the night was at Santa Anna's favorite hacienda En El Cierra [Sierra] . A fine mansion situated in the mountains in a yard containing a mile square of cleared grassland, commanding a most beautiful view of mountain and valley — but destitute of the cultivated fields or surrounding forests — The doors were opened, and the company with visited the various apartments elegantly furnished with marble tables, with soft sofas, large and bright mirrors, with rich paintings, and carpeted floors — We gratified our curiosity by examining all — even the [added: tastily [tastefully] furnished] wardrobe supplied mostly with the military dress, of the warrior owner of these halls — We found that Gen. [General] Scott had posted upon the walls, and upon the door of the cathedral, his "Safeguard," making it an offense to punishable by death to do violence or injury to the property the persons not soldiers, or family (but not including Santa Anna [added: himself] ) of the hacienda — We took our quarters at the porters lodge man the great gate, leading by thro [through] the stone wall, by a paved and serpentine walk to the Mansion. — (16 miles)

April 21st We were late getting our breakfast ready out of the materials on hand, especially to [added: in] preparing our flour — And were hurried off, by observing the column in motion — The duty assigned as of acting as front guard was quite troublesome in checking the straggling soldiers, who were eager to press forward — We marched [added: under arms] in order [added: with music] thro' [through] the city of Jalapa , the And here we have seen [added: met with] the greatest and richest city [added: yet reached seen by us] the most beautiful [added: prettiest] women, and the most beautiful [added: mountain] scenery, whose declivity is dotted with cultivated fields — we our hearts were glad to see [added: for the first time in many months] Some of the growth of our country [added: the Sycamore] the peach tree, the elder and the blackberry — And we looked more at an old log cabin though it did not have the "garments and [unclear: nanment?? ] skins" of our human cabins




Page [16]  view page image

[added: 14] in the suburbs of the city, than we did at the palaces and castles of the city — The We made no halt in the city, but march out upon the paved road to Mexico, about 4 miles, beyond and entered upon a grassy field, took our quarters under a clump of trees upon the margin of a cemented aqueduct, thro' [through] which the [added: cold] water runs rapidly to a cotton manufactory just below; made fast our horses, made our supper out of the [added: the remnants of] our breakfast having the supplies of our Brigade being exhausted — We rolled up in our blankets and slept, but the bright air was cold and chilly — and we have not yet found that climate, where it is never either too warm or too cold for comfort, so this is said to be; unless a man has an imagination of such vigor that in the hear of the day he might cool himself by looking to the peaks of [unclear: Orisjava ] or the Cofre de Perote , both of which we have seen to day [today] and have been so near their base, as to raise our heads & look into the clouds to see their lofty peaks —

22nd No other duty assigned us than to send out 8 men to assist in arresting the men [added: soldiers] who contrary to orders have been hunting and killing beef upon their own account — Some of us visited the cotton factory near us, owned it is said by the God-father of Santa Anna — The buildings are excellent, and extensive but the machinery is [added: not] of the late improvement; it was made at Patterson New Jersey [added: 18] And is superintended by an American — We have received news to-day that Genl [General] Worth has arrived at Perote , where he met a Lieunt. Col. [Lieutenant Colonel] of the Mexican Army who formally surrended [surrendered] the 50 cannon in the castle with all its other munitions of war — This looks as if the war was being wound up to a close —

23d Some of us visited the city to-day, while others reclined upon the green turf of our quarters — Two companies [added: of our Regiment] ( Lacy's & Wayne's ) arrived to-day.

24th By turns we visit the town, and The [added: There appear to be several] races of people, a in & about Jalapa — We find some who in their appearance, manners & dress, seem to be of a superior order to the mass of Mexicans of the North. There is too a middle cast very much like those we have general seen upon our march — And again, there is a still lower class of a degraded race, who are resemble our savage Indians, in their dark copper complexion, and scanty dress — We saw a Spanish looking gentleman to-day, prancing thro' [through] the streets of the city, upon a [a] handsome [added: grey] mustang poney, caparisoned with a saddle almost covered with massive silver — with embossed leather covering the horses [unclear: correp ] , down to his hocks, and fringed around with jingling metals.

25th The Mexicans are bringing to our camps a good plentiful supply of vegetables [added: poultry] and choice fruits — for most of these things they ask enormous prices — Turkeys $ 3 — Chickens 75 Eggs 2 1/2 Pine Apples 12 1/2 to 25 [added: & most excellent they are] — Oranges 2 1/2 — Banana's 2 — Plantarus 1 — Those who have money enjoy these things especially the fruits but the it has been so long since our last pay day, that we are not only getting scarce of money, and but our clothes are pretty well worn out — And we do not now deny that we are ragged volunteers The prices asked for clothing are about three times the amount of those at home — And being beyond the proportion of our pay — We [added: Some one like the [unclear: for ] with his who was curtailed by a trap] have in jest proposed that each man should tear his clothes, in uniform with the rent in his own dispensable — but the other is getting rather to [unclear: cool ]




Page [17]  view page image

[added: 15] especially by night — otherwise the temperature is as pleasant as could be desired —

26th We are getting no forage for our horses and they are entirely dependant upon the pasturage of the field in which we are encamped [added: for their support] — but it is [added: an] excellent pasture. Large quantities of corn is being brought in by the Mexicans & purchased by our forage wasters — it is probable Gen [General] Scott designs this supply for his march to the city of Mexico — On account of our horses we remain, generally at our quarters — The diligence from Mexico came to-day and brings intelligence that there are no troops either at the city or between this p upon the route — Our officers say that according to a late calculation report of the Mexican Secretary of War compared with the result of our invasion, we have captured all the ordinance of the nation except six canon. They must be pretty well wound up, as for us the [added: in the] further persecution of a warlike resistance to our advance upon their capitol.

27th No military duty — and we spend our time, beneath the shadow [added: of] the trees above our 'stakes' — We have not tents; having surrendered the fun with which we started to the wounded of Col. [Colonel] Haskell's (2nd Regt [Regiment]) and have never stretched one since we left Vera Cruz — But last night we felt the need and use of a comfortable tent; for during the night, a steady and apparently a steady constant rain commenced, and continued until nearly day — all of us were rolled up in our bl several blankets, which before the rain ceased, were thoroughly soaked, and many [added: & those] of us were almost afloat, who occupied positions, in [added: from] which the water would not run off — In the latter part of the night About 30 steps from our quarters, there is a precipice, from the ravine at the bottom grow tall trees, whose tops just peer above the brow of the precipice — This has been th a fatal place to sundry jacks and ferrets which have infested our camps, by destroying our stealing the provender from our horses, and even making encroachments upon our [added: unguarded] provisions; one company of the 1st. Ten Regt. [Tennessee Regiment] were so unfortunate a few nights past, as to have not only t—heir barrel of crackers destroyed but all their sugar eaten up, and their coffee tramped in the dirt by these animals, which have been mostly imported within our lines, by the wearied soldiers on the marched who packed than with their knapsacks, guns & c [et cetera] & in some instances by riding them — Two or three of the men of this company who were so encroached upon and deprived of their breakfast; commenced the retaliation upon the animals by casting them over this precipice, and from the fall none of them escaped a sudden




Page [18]  view page image

[added: 16]

This retaliation was continued, and now [added: in] this gloomy hollow [added: there] is the grave [added: a heap] of many jacks and jennets, thus destroyed. In the late hours of last night, we heard the shout of some one in distress down deep in this ravine — he said had fallen over the precipice, and more fortunate than the jacks had escaped with life, but had received several bruises — he refused to tell his name, and was there upon thrown a burning brand, to light his way, and unfeelingly recommended to ride up one of the jacks below — he was found his way down the glen and back to camps, and at the morning dress parade, and officer of our neighbours [neighbors] The 1st Pennsylvania Regt [Regiment] had his arm in a sling, and thus disclosed the person who in the night had taken either a lovers leap or who had taken a missed the step in his [added: dark & perhaps necessitous] perambulation —

28th The rain continues, and we are apprehensive that the season has commenced, wherein we are told the sun does not appear for many weeks together — We sit around our camp fire, with our blankets over our shoulders to protect us from the rain and ever and arrow, fork out a piece of boiled beef, from our large camp kettle, which is constantly boiling upon the fire — This indulgence has sent several of our men to the Surgeon for a dose of [unclear: landamun ] and camphor; whilst two or three others require the use of quinine to check the chills which we are surprised to find in this high and healthy region. It is however hoped they will have but short endurance; and that soon we shall all be stout and hearty —

29th Our Regt. [Regiment] is called upon for a force of 100 men to guard a train which starts back for Vera Cruz to-day — We were apprehensive of being call sent upon this service and presented to the Colonel many reasons in a long argument why we should not — because we decidedly prefered [preferred] to remain here, to avoid [added: the] sickness we fear of Vera Cruz, and for the benefit of our horses, — Three other companies of the Regt. [Regiment] ( Marshall, Newman, & Lacys ) were selected and sent back with the train, with orders to return immediately — and with them we expect the balance of our company and of our Regiment, who are at Vera Cruz — Now: speculations and conjectures are rife as to the time of our discharge and how we shall in the mean time be employed — The prospect is that we shall be retained until the full expiration of our term of enlistment; whereas we had thought we would be allowed time to return to our homes before the expiration of our term — But how far can we march before the tenth of June? Can we reach the halls of the Monte [unclear: Zennas ]? — Are questions often asked, as well as whether we shall [added: fight again or not.]




Page [19]  view page image

[added: 17]

April 30th This being the muster day prescribed by general regulations — A mustering officer ( Lt. [Lieutenant] Rains ) attended, and entered upon the duties supposed to have been assigned him; The Col. [Colonel] and Majr. [Major] were both sick and unable for duty — The command of the Regt. [Regiment] was turned over to Capt. [Captain] Caswell, who appointed Charles Stone acting Adjutant — By reference to an order issued from General Lead quarters, it was ascertained that Lt. [Lieutenant] Hammands , was the proper mustering officer; — being late in the day — wet and rainy & the horses out on pasture — the muster was defered [deferred] until to-morrow morning 9 o'clock —

May 1st The muster, kept us engaged pretty much during the day. We presented 2 officers — 4 now commissioned officers 2 musicians and 15 privates (one of whom Cobb , kept in quarters to avoid a chill) All passed muster with their arms, and horses. — By some attention full rations of corn was obtained for our horses. Lt. [Lieutenant] Donally was appointed Quarter Master for the Regt. [Regiment] temporarily —

May 2nd We are notified to be in readiness to march towards the city of Mexico, in a few days; what opposition we shall encounter is entirely a mystery — As yet we have heard of no organized force — but that Gurilla [Guerilla] bands are being prepared to harass [harrass] our front & rear — Already several attacks have been made upon our trains and despatch [dispatch] bearers between this place and Vera Cruz — and to-day, a volunteer of the Illinois Regiment was killed near camp. The rain falls every day — and there can be no doubt but that the rainy season has commenced — Generally in the morning the peak of Perote and the bright top of Orizaba , laughs in the brightness [added: & splendor] of a bright beaming sun, over the wide lanscape [landscape] between us, over the city villages, and cultivated fields, which remind us of the accounts given of the [added: Alpine] vinyards [vineyards] of; in the afternoon clouds gather and darken the sky above, and then a shower like the gentle showers, which bring forth and refreshen [added: the spring] vegetation of our own county — And oh! in the listless, dreary hours of our present life, how ardently do we desire to see again our friends and homes — The time has arrived when we expected to have our faces set [added: and our daily marches leading us] in that direction —

May 3rd A heavy rain in the afternoon, to which some of us were fully exposed — Some person had sold Fortners horse to a Qr. [Quarter] Master for the Dragoons who claimed him — And to establish Fortners right of property, took [added: keep] several of us riding backwards and forwards thro' [through] the rain — Again an order was received for a Squadron of the Ten. [Tennessee] Cavalry, to march to-morrow towards Puebla — We were selected to compose a part of that Squadron — and late in the evening commenced asperations, in procuring rations & forage a There was a distribution of the captured Mexican clothing — Many of the men have rigged themselves out in the motley & fantastic ill fitting uniforms — it is however of such coarse & inferior quality that much of it lies neglected scattered uncared for over the ground of the encampment.




Page [20]  view page image

[added: 18]

May 4th A hasty and an early breakfast was despatched [dispatched] our saddlebags packed — our blankets gathered up Our horses all saddled — A waggoner [wagoner] reported himself to transport our cooking utensils And all were ready to take up the line of march for [added: "The] Halls of the Montezumas" — when the order to march was countermanded and with the order came the information that we would march no farther, but return home from this place —




Page [21]  view page image

[added: Incidents]

At the capitulation which preceded the surrender of the Mexican army at [unclear: Cerro Sorclo ], —— [no name given] a Captain of the Mexican Navy, who commanded one of the front batteries reforced to surrender, unless allowed to march out with the honors of war, allowed at Monterey — Genl. [General] Worth patting his foot with impatience and without waiting for the General in Chief to reply — told him he admired his spirit, and to go back to his batter "Let him go back" said he to Genl. [General] Scott, "by G — [God] I have 2300 fresh men & I will whip him in five minutes" — but the Navy Capt. [Captain] thought better of it & soon came to terms —

On the 17th Col. [Colonel] Childs, of the Artillery, with a portion of the Rifle Regt. [Regiment] and several small detachments of different corps — had advanced half way up the Castle hill of Cerro Gordo [Sierra Gordo] — his perilous position, [added: his small force] being unsupported, was observed, and he was recalled by a bugle signal of the Rifle's — In his eagerness to advance the prelo signal was not regarded — It was sounded again — Not understanding the sound, he appealed to Lt. [Lieutenant] Gibbs of the same [added: Rifle] corps, to tell him what it meant — I do not know said Gibbs — Col. [Colonel] Childs told him he certainly must know the signals of his own corps — "Col. [Colonel]" said he "I never learned the signal for a recall" —

When the 2nd Tennessee Regt. [Regiment] charged the Mexican breast works on the 18th One man came hobbling back to the reserve, with his hand upon the fleshy part of his back, and was un in reply to numerous enquiries [inquiries] relative to his hurts — answered as he passed on [added: to] the Surgeons — "Oh! [added: I am killed —] my wound is considerable bad — I believe I shall die" — but he was soon assured that he would only suffer an inconvenience in a sitting down, for a few days —




Page [22]  view page image

A Pennsylvanian [added: who was among the first to run at Cerro Gordo [Sierro Gordo]] came to our camp fire, and complained bitterly of the exposures & privations of a soldier — and stated that he had been thoroughly wet by rains for several days in succession — Dripping wet ourselves, we felt the force [added: truth] of his observations — but in better spirits, we are offered him the mock comfort of an assurance that he would become entirely accustomed to such things [added: moist weather], so as not to mind them [added: water] by the time the rainy season commenced — he went away in despair of escaping death both from the enemy and the climate if it should become worse than he had



A product of DLPS
To comment or inquire about content, contact UTK Special Collections
To report errors, contact UTK Special Collections