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Title:[Book] 1793, A Short Description of the Tennassee [Tennessee] Government :a machine readable transcription of an image
Author:Carey, Mathew

This work is the property of the Special Collections Library, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. It may be used freely by individuals for research, teaching, and personal use as long as this statement of availability is included in the text. For all other use contact the Special Collections Librarian, Hoskins Library, University of Tennessee, 1401 Cumberland Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37996. (865) 974-4480.

Date: 1793
Extent: 20p
Summary:This document is a book titled "A Short Description of the Tennassee (Tennessee) Government" and was written in 1793. The term 'Government' can be understood to refer to the term 'state' or 'area'. The book discusses many aspects of Tennessee, including topics concerning the land and the livelihood of the inhabitants of the various areas of the state. The topics covered in the book that discuss the topography of the land include rivers, climate, plants, animals, and land and soil composition. The book also discusses how the inhabitants of Tennessee farmed their land, used the rivers to gain access to supplies, and related with the Indian tribes in the state.
Collection:A Short Description of the Tennassee Government

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SHORT DESCRIPTION, &c. [et cetera]

THE Tennassee [Tennessee] government, or the territory of the United States, south of the river Ohio, is that tract of country, which was ceded to the United States by the state of North-Carolina [North Carolina], in the year 1789. It is situated between the parallels of 35 degrees and 36 degrees 30 minutes, extending from the great Iron mountain to the river Mississippi .

WHEN we cast our eyes on the map of any country, especially the map of a new country, in which little else is seen than the situation of mountains, rivers, and plains, we are desirous to know what is the state of its soil and climate; what are the advantages its inhabitants may be expected to enjoy, or the difficulties under which they must labour [labor]. A general answer to these questions, as they respect the Tennassee [Tennessee] government, is the object of this publication.

WE discover, at first sight, that the southern territory is cut into eastern and western divisions, by Cumberland mountain, a ridge near thirty miles broad; and it is probable, that the commercial connexions [connections] of people who live in the eastern division, may be different

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[added: (4)] from those of the western inhabitants. The great island on the Holston river, is not abve [above] 340 miles from Richmond in Virginia , along a good waggon [wagon] road, whence we may conclude that the settlers on Holston will preserve a considerable intercourse with the Atlantic states: but people who live to the westward of Cumberland mountain, will send their produce to market by means of the Mississippi. This remarkable difference in their situation will probably induce the inhabitants of those districts to employ themselves differently, for the most proper or profitable productions in one settlement, may not be most profitable in the other.

THE Holston settlement contains 28,649 inhabitants, though in the year 1775 it hardly contained 2000. The land in this settlement is generally fertile; but the face of the country is much broken. Placed, as it is, between two large mountains, we may readily suppose that the farmer never suffers by the want of rain. The soil produces wheat, barley, Indian corn, hemp, and flax, in great perfection. Physicians have not hitherto found their way to that country, for the people have not been sick. They enjoy a temperate climate, ease, and abundance.

IRON ore abounds in that country. A capital furnace and forge have lately been erected on Holston, near the Virginia line. There is a bloomery below the mouth of Wataga [Watauga], and another 25 miles above the mouth of French Broad. There are also sundry leadmines in the settlement, one in particular on French Broad river, that produces seventy five per cent [percent] in pure lead.

THE greatest part of the Tennassee [Tennessee] government lies on the west side of Cumberland mountain; and though that country has hardly been settled ten years by civilized men, it naturally claims the greatest share of our attention, because it is extensive, and will probably become the residence of a numerous and powerful colony.

THE mean distance between Cumberland mountain and the Mississippi is about 230 miles. This, at 103

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[added: (5)] miles broad, gives fifteen millions of acres; and it is generally agreed, that eleven or twelve millions of that land may be cultivated to advantage; such is the proportion of arable land. The natives, who formerly inhabited that country, must have been very numerous; we seldom go more than five or six miles along the banks of Cumberland river, without finding a large burying-place, the evident remains of a considerable town. As the Indians had their choice of land, and do not appear to have been equally numerous in other places, we may suppose they found this to be a soil on which they could live with greatest ease.

Of the Rivers.
FROM the face of the map it appears, that this country is well intersected by rivers, and most of those rivers are navigable by large boats; some of them by ships.

TENNASSEE [Tennessee] river is navigable by vessels of great burden to the Muscle Shoals; those shoals are only to be passed in small boats or batteaux; from the Muscle Shoals the river is navigable in boats of 40 or 50 tons burden, to the Virginia line.

CUMBERLAND river is navigable in large vessels to Nashville , and thence in boats to the mouth of Obas river.

DUCK river is navigable in boats about 90 miles. The waters of Harpath, Cany-fork, Stones, Roaring and Red river, have uniformly a gentle current towards the mouth, whence they are all navigable in boats for a considerable distance. In a word, no spot can be marked in that country, that is more than 20 miles from a boatable stream, so great are its advantages of water-conveyance.

THERE are five navigable rivers in this territory which discharge themselves immediately into the Mississippi, viz [to wit]. Wolf, Hatchee, Forked-deer, Obion, and Reel-foot.

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[added: (6)] WOLF river, seven miles from the mouth, is about 50 yards wide; Hatchee 80 yards; Forked-deer 60 yards; Obion 70 yards; and Reel-foot 30 yards. These rivers in general are deep, and flow with a gentle current, unincumbered with rocks or rapids, until they reach the barren or broken tract in which they rise. Each of those rivers is bordered by a small strip of low ground, 60 or 80 wards wide, and this again is terminated by a gentle slope or secondary bank. In order to understand the use, perhaps the cause of this remarkable circumstance, an inner and an outer bank to each of those rivers, it should be remembered that the river Mississippi, during the month of May, rises perpendicularly near 25 feet, at which season the low ground on both sides of that river is covered with water, to the depth of 12 or 18 inches. This inundation, on the west side of the river extends to a great distance, for the country seems to be lower in that direction, and some of the waters of that river find their way to the ocean by other channels. On the east side of the river, the inundation hardly extends above five miles; at that distance the waters are restrained by a secondary bank, which runs parallel to the general course of the river. This outer bank is properly the beginning of high and dry land. It is obvious, that during those spring floods, the rivers, which run into the Mississippi, must suffer a considerable interruption. Their current is affected 10, 15, or 20 miles from the mouth, and they overflow their banks. On those occasions, the secondary bank of those small rivers becomes necessary, for it prevents the adjacent land from being overflowed, except the narrow border above described. The industry of a small French colony at New Orleans has given a sufficient proof that the inundations of the Mississippi may be restrained by artificial banks, by which means arable land has been and may be secured, that is hardly equaled in value by any known lands, except in Egypt .

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[added: (7)]Of the Timber, Plants, Animals, &c. [et cetera]
THE land on the waters of Tennassee [Tennessee] and Cumberland rivers is generally well timbered. In some places, there are glades of rich land without timber; but these are not frequent nor large. The general growth is popular, hickory, black-walnut, buck-eye, or the horse-chesnut [chestnut], sycamore, locust, and the sugar-maple. The under growth, in many places, is cane 15 or 20 feet high, so close together, as to exclude all other plants; where the cane does not abound, we find red-bud, wild-plumb, spice-wood, red and white mulberry, gensang [ginseng], Virginia and Seneka [Seneca] snake-root, angelica, sweet-anise, ginger, and wild-hops. The glades are covered with clover, wild-rye, buffalo-grass, and peavine. On the hills, at the heads of rivers, we find stately red-cedars; many of these trees are four feet in diameter, and forty feet clear of limbs. In those hills there is abundance of iron-ore, lead-ore, and coals. Copperas and alum fit for use have been gathered in caves near Nashville.

ON the rivers that run into the Mississippi, the growth is nearly the same as on the waters of Cumberland river.

IN speaking of a new country, that is extremely fertile and well covered with herbage, it can hardly be necessary to say that it abounds in wild game. The buffalo, elk, deer, and bear, are numerous, nor is there an scarcity of wolves, panthers, wild-cats, foxes, beavers, and otters. They have pheasants, partridges or quails, and turkies [turkeys] in abundance through the year. During the winter, their waters are covered with the swan, wild-goose, brant, and duck. Cat-fish have been caught in those rivers, that weighed above 100 pounds, and perch that weighed above 20 pounds. Nature seems to measure her works on a different scale on the opposite sides of the Apallachian [Appalachian] mountains.

IN the year 1780, a small colony under the direction of James Robertson , crossed the mountain, and settled

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[added: (8)] on Cumberland river, at the place now called Nashville. In year 1783, the state of North-Carolina [North Carolina] laid off a tract of land to be reserved for the discharge of military bounties; this reservation included the infant colony, a small tract having been allotted to each of the settlers. A county was also laid off on those waters, called Davidson, to commemorate a brave and popular officer who fell in the service of his country. The bounty lands were run off by surveyors appointed for that purpose; and in a few years a considerable number of the original grantees fold their titles to other persons, and the settlement has lately been increasing very fast. There were 7000 people on that river in September 1791, and their number, since that time, is much increased. We frequently hear of emigrants from the parent state 2 or 300 at a time crossing the mountain.

Of the Soil.
THE farmers on Cumberland river, for the sake of describing their lands, distinguish them by first, second, and third quality. Land of the first quality will bear Indian corn or hemp; but it will not bear wheat without great reduction. Land of the second quality does not bear wheat to advantage until it has been reduced by two or three crops of corn, hemp, tobacco, or cotton. Land of the third quality bears every kind of grain, that is usually sown on dry ground, in the Atlantic states. It is agreed by all who have visited the Cumberland settlement, that 100 bushels of Indian corn are frequently gathered from an acre of their best land. Sixty or seventy bushels from an acre is very common; but the farmer who expects to gather such a crop must be careful, while the corn is soft, to guard it against bears and racoons [raccoons]. This, however, is a trouble that must cease when the country is well settled. Wheat, barley, oats, rye, buckwheat, Indian corn, pease [peas], beans, potatoes of both forts, flax, hemp, tobacco, indigo, rice,

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[added: (9)] and cotton, have already been planted in that settlement, and they all thrive in great perfection. The usual crop of cotton is 800 pounds to the acre; the staple is long and fine. It is alleged, however, that the lands on the small rivers that run into the Mississippi, have a decided preference to those on the Cumberland river, for the production of cotton and indigo. No experiments have been made on land near the Mississippi, within the ceded territory; but there is a small settlement further down the river, within the limits of the United States, on a similar soil, where the growth and quality of cotton is so remarkable, that its culture is more profitable than any other crop. The soil on those rivers is deep and light, having a small mixture of sand with a black earth; hence, as the planters allege, it proves favourable [favorable] to the culture of all kinds of roots, as well as of indigo and cotton.

Of the Climate.
THE climate in this country is very temperate; and the experience of ten years assures us, that it is healthy. The piercing northerly winds that prevail, during the winter, in the Atlantic states, seldom molest the inhabitants on Cumberland river for they have no great mountains to the north or the westward. The inhabitants of the Atlantic states are also subjected to sudden changes in the atmosphere, arising from their vicinity to the ocean; the air that comes from the surface of the sea, especially from the war Gulf-stream in winter, must by very different in its temperature from the air that comes across cold and high mountains; but the great distance between the Cumberland settlers and the ocean, considering that many great mountains are interposed, effectually secures them against the bad effects of those sudden changes. North-easterly storms never reach this country.

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[added: (10)] OTHER circumstances present themselves, by which we may account for the remarkable healthiness of this settlement. Lime-stone is common on both sides of Cumberland mountain. The bottom of a river on the west side of the mountain, is frequently a continued stratum of this rock. It is generally known that small streams of water are apt to disappear in countries that abound in lime-stone [limestone]: this is occasioned, doubtless, by the great fissures that are common in those rocks; from the same cause it probably arises, that we seldom find marshes or stagnant waters where there is much lime-stone. In this territory we find no stagnant waters; and this is certainly one of the reasons why the inhabitants are not afflicted with those bilious and intermitting fevers, which are so frequent, and often fatal, in the same latitude near the coast in Carolina . Whether it proceeds from the goodness of the water, the purity of the air, the temperature of the climate, or whatever else may have been the cause, the inhabitants of that country have certainly been remarkably healthy, ever since they settled on the waters of Cumberland river, whence it appears that the climate is healthy and pleasant.

MEN frequently change their habitations in quest of a better place; and the man, who can enjoy the greatest degree of health, ease, and plenty, is generally supported to have the most desirable habitation. Keeping this remark in view, perhaps there are few places that present fairer prospects to the man who is looking for a settlement. Few places are more healthy; there is none more fertile; and there is hardly any other place, in which the farmer can support his family in such a degree of affluence. The soil is not only fertile, but easily cultivated. Six hogsheads of tobacco for one man does not require more labour [labor], than three hogsheads in the Atlantic states; and a difference similar to this appears in every other crop. In the culture of corn, the difference is greater. This circumstance alone would secure abundance to the industrious man; but we must

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[added: 11] also recollect, that, in cold climates, the farmer is shut up or prevented from working several months in the year, during which cold season he is consuming his stores, and his cattle are making greater destruction. When we consider the quantity of food that must be laid up for the necessary support of stock in cold climates, we may fairly calculate, that half of the farmer's time is spent in making provision for his cattle, or in sheltering himself from the weather. In the southern territory, cattle at present support themselves among the reeds, pea-vines, rye-grass, and clover; but when the progress os cultivation shall have destroyed the wild range, it is obvious, that the sodder and straw obtained from the ordinary crops, will be more than sufficient to support the cattle.

LET us review this account. It is granted, that, in cold climates, more than half of the farmer's time is lost from labour [labor] by intemperate weather, or taken up in working for the support of his cattle; this gives an odds of two to one in favour [favor] of the country that has been described. We are next to recollect, that one day's labour [labor], in this country, produces more than twice as much grain, or other provisions, as it produces in common land, and in a northern climate; this gives another difference of two to one, which makes four to one throughout the year. But, considering that industry, in all countries, bears some proportion to the necessities of the inhabitants, we shall suppose, that the farmer, in this territory, during the year, raises only twice as much provision for his family, as he could raise on common land in a colder climate; and the difference, as it respects himself, must be immense. In this country, he would live in great affluence, or become rich, by that measure of industry, which, in the other situation, would hardly be sufficient to the support of a miserable life.

PEOPLE, however, are seldom contented with the mere necessaries of life. There are certain luxuries, which the progress of society has taught us to consider

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[added: 12] as necessary. Sugar, coffee, and tea belong to this class; as do sundry articles of foreign dress. What is the farmer to sell in the western part of the Tennassee [Tennessee] government, that he may be enabled to buy foreign articles? He lives at a great distance from sea; how is he to be provided with salt?

IT is very remarkable, that the farmer has more use for salt in the western country, than in the Atlantic states. His cattle, in that country, will not thrive without salt; and this is the only thing, at present, he has occasion to give them. It has already been observed, that limestone abounds in the western country; this stone is not found in the southern states, until we approach the first ridge of mountains. As we travel westward, we find lead ore and salt springs in abundance. Does this country abound in articles that are seldom found in the Atlantic states, because it is composed of the original mother earth; whereas the land near the coast, in the middle and southern states, is adventitious? Be this as it may, the salt-springs that are found in every part of the western country, afford the utmost relief to the inhabitants, whose cattle, from the quality of their food, have more need of salt than those who are nearer the sea. Hitherto the salt-works have not been judiciously managed, either at Kentucky or the Cumberland settlement: and yet salt, made from the water of salt-springs, may be purchased for one dollar the bushel. As the source can never fail, and the mode of preparing it is capable of great improvement, we may reasonably suppose, that the average price of salt made on Cumberland river, will be three fourths of a dollar the bushel.

THE settlers have not had much experience of bringing loaded boats up the Mississippi; but they calculate, from the trips they have made, that salt may be freighted from New-Orleans to Nashville, at rather less than three eights of a dollar the bushel; and it appears from similar experiments, that pork, flour, or other produce, may be taken from Nashville to New Orleans at less than

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[added: 13] three eights of a dollar the bushel. Those calculations regard the river Mississippi in its present state, with all its circular bendings, the banks covered with trees, and no part of the upper country settled; but the river, at present, is more than double the necessary length. From the mouth of the river Ohio to New-Orleans, the present distance by water is supposed to be 1000 miles; the direct distance is considerably short of 500 miles. In navigating that river we often find places like a horse-shoe, where we do not gain more than a mile by failing or rowing five miles. Every one of those bends may be cut off at a small expense. Let a common ditch, three or four feet deep, be dug across those necks of land, the roots being cut away when the river is low, and the next flood, by the rapidity of the stream through the short passage, will change the ditch to a navigable channel. An experiment of this kind has been made with success, at a place called Point Coupe . Two great benefits will arise from this process of giving the river a straight course; one half of the time and labour in ascending the river, will be saved by shortening the distance. This case supposes that vessels ascend the river by the help of oars, and poles, without sails, which is generally the case at present, because the river is so crooked, that no wind can be fair; but in case the chief bendings of the river should be cut off, as a southerly wind prevails there for the greater part of the year, every vessel would ascend by the use of sails, and the difficulties of that navigation would be reduced to a trifle. Considering what would be the utmost expense of transporting salt from New-Orleans to Nashville, and considering that Nashville is 2 or 300 miles by water farther from New-Orleans, than some other parts of the territory, and presuming that a great share of the present expense may be saved by practicable improvements in the navigation of the Mississippi, we may readily conclude, that the mere freight of the luxuries of life must be a small object to the inhabitants of that territory. As matters are now circumstanced, provided the navi

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gation [navigation][added: 14] of the Mississippi was free, the setters [settlers] on Cumberland river would take their produce to a shipping port, at less expense than it can be waggoned [wagoned] fifty miles in any country.

As the country that has been described, is capable of producing, in great perfection, every article that grows in the Atlantic states, there are no leading circumstances, by which we can possibly determine, what is like to be the general course of its trade, or the particular articles in which its most valuable exports will consist. Iron, lead, pot-ash, pork, bacon, butter, cheese, corn, wheat, barley, flax, hemp, rice, indigo, and cotton, have all been mentioned by different persons from that country, as articles of export. Each of these articles will doubtless be exported in greater or less quantity, according to the demand; but it appears most probable, that the inhabitants will make their chief remittances in tobacco, hemp, rice, indigo, and cotton. The low grounds on the Mississippi must produce great crops of rice, and it has already been observed, that the high grounds near that river are particularly favourable [favorable] to the culture of indigo and cotton. The article last mentioned must be a constant source of wealth to the planter, because its value is considerable when compared with its weight, and it must be in constant demand in foreign markets. It is hardly necessary to observe, that in a country where timber of the best and most durable quality, and all other materials abound, necessary for shipping, the inhabitants will doubtless build ships for a distant market.

EVERY thing that has been said concerning the advantages to be expected by people who settle in the Tennassee government, is founded on a supposition that all the country may be settled, and the inhabitants permitted to navigate the Mississippi. At present they are greatly restrained on both those heads; but there does not seem to be any violence offered to common sense, nor any great departure from probability, in supposing that the case will be materially altered within a few years. It

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[added: 15] is hardly worth while to observe, that the navigation of the Mississippi is ours by the express words of treaties; because paper promises are seldom very binding on nations, unless they are supported by other arguments; but it happens in the present case, that arguments more conclusive than treaties present themselves to every attentive mind. Necessity is invincible, and a nation so well informed as the Spaniards must discover, that our fellow citizens on the western waters cannot remain quiet without the use of the Mississippi. The progress of population in that country is no more to be prevented or restrained than the flowing of the rivers. It cannot be retarded by laws, not by treaties, nor by a stronger cure- the fear of death. The proofs are recent and clear. There was not a single family settled in Kentucky before the year 1775, and the first colony migrated to that country in the face of numerous and hostile savages, when they were more openly supported than of late years, by the British. It is known, that they have continued, from the beginning, in a constant state of war; and yet the settlement, at this hour, contains near one hundred thousand inhabitants. The first adventurers were men, and the increase for several years was chiefly occasioned by emigrants; but women are now become numerous, and the settlement begins to enjoy the benefit of a rapid increase from early marriage and constant emigration. This observation is also applicable to the settlers in the Tennassee [Tennessee] government; wherefore, it is a very moderate computation, that supposes four hundred thousand settlers on the western waters by the end of twenty years from this time. Are the inhabitants of such a country to be restrained from going to sea by means of a river that washes their land? Is the little colony of New-Orleans, by the help of a few soldiers, to sustain the weight of such a people, and prevent them from descending? We could as readily believe with the poets, that Mount Atlas sustains the heavens. To say that they are citizens, and must be restrained by the laws of the Union, is to suppose that

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[added: (16)] men will submit to the dominion of laws that are destructive of property — that they will endure oppression, when they can emancipate themselves; that they will suffer under the want of common necessaries, when they have comfortable supplies and riches before their eyes; a case that is not like to happen in America. There are people of such a stamp in the world, but this race does not thrive in the Atlantic states; much less can such a race of animated machines be expected to grow in the western country. Viewing the subject in this point of light, and considering the natural effect of this most unnatural obstruction, events that are very unpleasing present themselves to the mind.

THE western people consider the navigation of the Mississippi as the light of the fun, a birth-right that cannot be alienated. They believe that the national government is bound to support this claim. Let them be told, that their claims, for certain political reasons, cannot be admitted, and they will discover no strength in the argument. They will think of taking by force, the thing that seems to be retained by finesse. Let them be told, that such conduct would be treasonable, and they will reply, that obedience and protection are mutual. If those people should commit a single act of violence on that head, they could not afterwards be restrained by all the powers of the national government. It is true, that the capture of New-Orleans and every port on the Mississippi, would not secure them the navigation of that river. A single frigate at the mouth of the river, would blast the mercantile schemes of all the people in the western country; but we know, that men who have once dipped their feet in treason, are apt to proceed. The penalty is alike for little and for much. Hardy, adventurous men, who are prevented from cultivating the soil, because they are not suffered to carry their produce to sea, may look for some other employment; they may think of a more easy way of getting money. Objects of ambition will not fail to present themselves. Considering, therefore,

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[added: (17)] that the settlement of the western country cannot possibly be retarded; that no human eloquence can dissuade those people from claiming the Mississippi, which is their chief avenue to wealth; that the commerce of Spain might be greatly increased by permitting them to enjoy the free use of that river, and that consequences, unpleasing to both nations, must infallibly arise, from a perseverance in shutting up the river; we may consider the free navigation of the Mississippi as a certain event. By tracing the short lines which mark the Indian boundary, we discover, that all lands on Duck river and Elk river, as well as on the several rivers which run into the Mississippi, continue to be claimed by the Indians; and those lands are among the best in that country. It may be observed, at the same time, that all those lands are claimed by the Chickasaws , a small tribe of friendly Indians. We may be assured, that the government of the United States will not permit those lands to be settled, without the consent of the Indians; but we must discover, that the natural progress of things, in a short time, will render a considerable part of that country, especially the lands on the Mississippi, useless to the Indians, and necessary to the Whites. Numerous boatmen, passing up and down the river, will have frequent occasion to go on shore; they will need refreshments. Many who go down on rafts or boats, will return by land; they will destroy the game. In a word, every man who lives on the western waters must be interested in having settlements on the Mississippi. There can be little difficulty in making a bargain for a country that is of great use to the Whites, and little use to the Indians. The true interest of the United States would point out a price for those lands, that would enable the Chickasaws to live in a degree of ease and affluence, which otherwise they can never expect. Suppose the Indians should cede all the lands to the northward of Wolf river; in that case, the amount of the North-Carolina grants being deducted, the United States will have at least six millions of [added: C]

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[added: (18)] acres of good land for sale; lands of such a quality, and so near the sea, will hardly be sold, even by the public, for less than one third of a dollar the acre. Six millions of acres at one third of a dollar, would bring two millions of dollars, by which a debt to that amount must be extinguished, and 120,000 dollars per annum saved to the national treasury. Suppose the twelfth part of the money thus saved, ten thousand dollars, was paid annually to the Chickasaws; one half, in corn or other provisions at a stipulated price; and the other half in clothing; is it not obvious, that their condition would be greatly mended, and equally clear, that the state of our finances would be much improved by such a regulation? It is true, that Indian lands have commonly been obtained on terms much less profitable to the Indians, and more expensive to the Whites; but it may be presumed, that experience will teach us to forsake the old plan, since it is neither recommended by the dictates of humanity nor the rules of economy.

SUCH is the territory south of the Ohio. The eastern division, as we have observed, is composed of small mountains and vallies [valleys], which are extended in the direction of the rivers. There is no plain, or tract of arable land, of any considerable width, in that settlement; but the vallies [valleys] are generally fertile. In the great western division, there is not a single eminence or ridge, that claims the name of a mountain. This country, nevertheless, is sufficiently diversified by rising ground, and bears no resemblance to the continued plain, which is found near the coast, in the middle and southern states. The rich lands near the Cumberland river are considerably broken by knobs or short hills; but those hills have lime-stone for their basis, and are fertile and fit for cultivation to the very top. Streams that run in opposite direction to the very top. Streams that run in opposite directions are uniformly divided by rising ground, and some of the ridges are considerably elevated; but they are generally covered with good soil, and are seldom too steep for the plough. There are two remarkable ridges or broken tracks, in that country of considerable di

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mensions [dimensions], [added: (19)] which are not included in the above description; for they are stony or barren in many places, the first of those ridges divides the waters of Cumberland river from those of the Tennassee [Tennessee]; it is broad as it approaches the foot of Cumberland mountain, or rather, diversified in that part by alternate hills and plains; but the plains, being chiefly without timber, are called barrens. The second remarkable tract of broken or barren land, begins near the mouth of Tennassee [Tennessee], dividing the waters of that river from those of the Mississippi, and extending southerly towards the Chickasaw towns. The small rivers that run into the Mississippi, have their heads in this ridge. It is, in some parts, above twenty miles broad, rising at the very margin of the Tennassee [Tennessee]. It is covered with long grass, having little or no timber, except a small growth on the watercourses, which are numerous.

THE territory west of Cumberland mountain has been stated at fifteen millions of acres; but this calculation leaves eight millions for the Holston settlement, which is certainly too much. The amount that may remain for sale on that side of the mountain, has, in round numbers, been stated at six millions; but the quantity, in all probability, will be considerably greater, without incident the great tract of vacant land south of the French Broad, nor the considerable tracts of arable land that are found in Cumberland mountain, nor those in the Cumberland barrens, so called, where the land, though without timber, is frequently very good; the Indians formerly, in burning the long grass, must have destroyed the trees.

IT is probable, that all the lands to the northward of the great bend of the Tennassee [Tennessee], may hereafter be joined to those ceded by North-Carolina, so as to form one state; such a state would have a natural boundary. And when we consider that the Creeks and Chactaws [Choctaws] live to the southward, who are numerous nations, together with the Chickasaws, we shall be apt to mark the latitude of the south bend, for a long series of years,

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[added: (20)] as our southern boundary for the purpose of settlement.

THE reader has been informed, that the soil, climate, and productions of the country on the western waters, are different from those in the Atlantic states; and it has been intimated, that the whole face of nature in that country bears a different appearance. Observations concerning things that are new or uncommon, should be made and received with caution; but the reader cannot fail to realize the narrative, if he takes the trouble of recollecting two or three remarkable facts, to which reference has already been had.

IN the Atlantic states, the strata of lime-stone are broken, and inclined considerably to the horizon, being, at a medium, nearly parallel to the axis of the earth. In the western country, the strata are constantly found parallel to the horizon.

IN the Atlantic states, salt springs are seldom or never found. In the western country, they abound in every part.

IN the Atlantic states, pit-coal is very scarce, and is obtained with difficulty. In the western country, it is common, and frequently appears within a few feet of the surface.

ONE of those countries must have suffered prodigious convulsions; the other may be supposed to retain more of its original form. Is it at all surprising, that a country, so different in its structure, its appearance, and essential qualities, should produce more plentiful crops, or that it should engage a considerable degree of public attention? [added: THE END.]

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